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  • Babenhausen Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Babenhausen.

    Babenhausen Displaced Persons Camp
  • Background: Jurists' Trial Verdict
  • Bad Gastein Displaced Persons Camps

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Bad Gastein.

    Bad Gastein Displaced Persons Camps
  • Bad Reichenhall Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Bad Reichenhall.

    Bad Reichenhall Displaced Persons Camp
  • Baldur von Schirach

    Article

    In the immediate aftermath of the Holocaust, the world was faced with a challenge—how to hold individually accountable those German leaders who were responsible for the commission of monstrous crimes against humanity and international peace. The International Military Tribunal (IMT) held in Nuremberg, Germany, attempted to face this immense challenge. On October 18, 1945, the chief prosecutors of the IMT brought charges against 24 leading German officials, among them Baldur von Schirach.

    Baldur von Schirach
  • Bari Transit Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Bari Transit.  

    Bari Transit Displaced Persons Camp
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Article

    On December 16, 1944, the German military launched the “Battle of the Bulge.” It was a last-ditch German military counter-offensive against the Allied armies in the West. Hitler hoped that the German counter-attack would surround the British and American armies and stall the Allied offensive against Germany. By early January 1945, the German military effort had failed. The Battle of the Bulge cost the Reich some 100,000 casualties and tremendous losses in military equipment.

    Battle of the Bulge
  • Beer Hall Putsch (Munich Putsch)

    Article

    On November 8–9, 1923, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party led a coalition group in an attempt to overthrow the German government. The plotters hoped to march on Berlin to launch a national revolution. But the insurrection failed miserably. Units of the Munich police force clashed with Nazi stormtroopers as they marched into the city center. The police killed more than a dozen of Hitler’s supporters. This attempted coup d'état came to be known as the Beer Hall Putsch

    Beer Hall Putsch (Munich Putsch)
  • Belgium

    Article

    German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. The Germans conquered Belgium in May 1940. German authorities carried out deportations between 1942 and 1944. They deported nearly 25,000 Jews from Belgium to Auschwitz.

    Belgium
  • Belzec

    Article

    To carry out the mass murder of Europe's Jews, the SS established killing centers devoted exclusively or primarily to the destruction of human beings in gas chambers. Belzec was among these killing centers. It was one of three killing centers linked to Operation Reinhard, the SS plan to murder almost two million Jews living in the German-administered territory of occupied Poland called the General Government.

    Belzec
  • Belzec: Key Dates

    Article

    To carry out the mass murder of Europe's Jews, the SS established killing centers devoted exclusively or primarily to the destruction of human beings in gas chambers. Belzec was among these killing centers. It was one of three killing centers linked to Operation Reinhard, the SS plan to murder almost two million Jews living in the German-administered territory of occupied Poland called the General Government.

    Belzec: Key Dates
  • Ben Ferencz and the Fight for International Justice

    Article

    Benjamin B. Ferencz has devoted his life to creating an international system of justice that protects everyone's right to live in peace with dignity. As a war crimes investigator and a Nuremberg prosecutor, he witnessed the horrifying effects of Nazi crimes. He became convinced that the world can prevent such atrocities only by outlawing and systematically punishing aggressive war and acts such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. 

    Ben Ferencz and the Fight for International Justice
  • Ben Kamm

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Ben Kamm.

    Ben Kamm
  • Benito Mussolini

    Article

    Benito Mussolini was an Italian nationalist and the founder of Italian Fascism. He ruled Italy from 1922 – 1925 as Prime Minister, and from 1925–1943 as il Duce, the Fascist dictator. Mussolini’s Fascist takeover of Italy was an inspiration and example for Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in Germany.

    Benito Mussolini
  • Benjamin Barr Lindsey

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Benjamin Barr Lindsey.

    Benjamin Barr Lindsey
  • Benjamin Levin

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Benjamin Levin. 

    Benjamin Levin
  • Benjamin Meed

    Article

    Benjamin Meed, Holocaust survivor and leader of the survivor community, was a founder of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In his words: “We must tell our story to be worthy of the memory of our six million martyrs who cannot speak for themselves.”

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