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  • Fascism

    Article

    Fascism is a far-right political philosophy, or theory of government, that emerged in the early twentieth century. Fascism prioritizes the nation over the individual, who exists to serve the nation. While fascist movements could be found in almost every country following World War I, fascism was most successful in Italy and Germany.

    Fascism
  • Father Jacques

    Article

    Father Jacques de Jésus (born Lucien Bunel) made the boys’ school in Avon, France, a refuge for young men seeking to avoid conscription for forced labor in Germany and for Jews. Seized by the Gestapo in January 1944, Father Jacques was imprisoned in several Nazi camps. 

    Father Jacques
  • Faye Schulman

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Faye Schulman.

    Faye Schulman
  • Featured Artifact: Model of the Lodz Ghetto
  • Feldafing Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Feldafing.

    Feldafing Displaced Persons Camp
  • Ferdinand Lassalle

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Ferdinand Lassalle.

  • Fire Oaths

    Article

    During the burning of books under the Nazi regime on May 10, 1933, many works were thrown into the flames while statements known as "fire oaths" were read. These statements declared why, in the Nazi view, the works of certain authors were to be burned. 

    Fire Oaths
  • First Letter to All Judges

    Article

    From 1942 until the end of the war in 1945, the Nazi court system became more and more a state vehicle for injustice and persecution. A series of "Letters to all Judges" presented the state's position on political questions and on the legal interpretation of Nazi laws. The first of these "letters" concerned the application of the death penalty.

    First Letter to All Judges
  • Flight and Rescue

    Article

    Tags: refugees
    Flight and Rescue
  • Flossenbürg

    Article

    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Among these sites was the Flossenbürg camp and its subcamps. 

    Flossenbürg
  • Flossenbürg: Key Dates

    Article

    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Among these sites was the Flossenbürg camp and its subcamps.

    Flossenbürg: Key Dates
  • Foehrenwald Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Foehrenwald.

    Foehrenwald Displaced Persons Camp
  • Forced Labor
  • Forced Labor: An Overview

    Article

    Forced labor played a crucial role in the wartime German economy. German military, SS, and civilian authorities brutally exploited Jews, Poles,Soviet civilians, and concentration camp prisoners for the war effort. Many forced laborers died as the result of ill-treatment, disease, and starvation.

    Forced Labor: An Overview
  • Forced Labor: In Depth
  • Forced Labor: Soviet POWs January 1942 through May 1945
  • Foundations of the Nazi State

    Article

    Following his appointment as chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg on January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler began laying the foundations of a Nazi state based on racist and authoritarian principles. In less than six months, Germany was transformed from a democratic state into a one-party Nazi dictatorship.

    Foundations of the Nazi State
  • France

    Article

    German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. France was divided into occupied and unoccupied zones, with differing policies in each. 

    France
  • Frances Perkins

    Article

    As President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins helped create legislation to ease the ravages of the Great Depression and rebuild the American economy, such as the Social Security Act of 1935. Perkins also played a significant role in the rescue of European Jews whose lives were threatened by the Nazi regime.

    Frances Perkins
  • Frank Blaichman (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Frank Blaichman.

    Frank Blaichman (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)
  • Frank Bleichman

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Frank Bleichman. 

  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt

    Article

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States (1933–1945). He faced immense domestic and international challenges, struggling to restore an economy shattered by the Great Depression, respond to the worldwide threat of fascism and an international refugee crisis, move the nation from isolation to victory in a global war, and prepare the United States as a leader in the postwar world. 

     

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt

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