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  • Labor and Internment Camps in North Africa

    Article

    In Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and French West Africa, French collaborationist Vichy authorities established a network of different types of camps: penal camps, labor camps, and internment camps.  These camps included Jewish and non-Jewish European refugees, those already residing in French colonial North Africa before 1940, those deported for forced labor in the Sahara, Allied prisoners of war, and civilians.

    Labor and Internment Camps in North Africa
  • Lachwa

    Article

    As the Nazis conducted the Holocaust, they established over 1,150 ghettos throughout German-occupied eastern Europe. Among them was Lachwa.

  • Lackenbach (Roma internment and transit camp)

    Article

    The Lackenbach Roma internment and transit camp was the largest such camp for so-called gypsies on Austrian territory, holding over 2,000 inmates in October 1941.

  • Lampertheim Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Lampertheim. 

    Lampertheim Displaced Persons Camp
  • Landsberg Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Landsberg. 

    Landsberg Displaced Persons Camp
  • Latvia
  • Law against the Founding of New Parties

    Article

    The Law against the Founding of New Parties was one of a series of key decrees, legislative acts, and case law in the gradual process by which the Nazi leadership moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship.

  • Law for the Imposition and Implementation of the Death Penalty

    Article

    The Law for the Imposition and Implementation of the Death Penalty was one of a series of key decrees, legislative acts, and case law in the gradual process by which the Nazi leadership moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship.

  • Law, Justice, and the Holocaust

    Article

    With a series of key decrees, legislative acts, and case law, the Nazi leadership gradually moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship. The role of the legal profession in general and the actions of judges in particular were critical. 

    Law, Justice, and the Holocaust
  • Le Chambon-sur-Lignon
  • Leah Johnson

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Leah Johnson. 

    Leah Johnson
  • Lebensborn Program

    Article

    Nazi authorities created the Lebensborn program to increase Germany’s population. Pregnant German women deemed “racially valuable” were encouraged to give birth to their children at Lebensborn homes. During World War II, the program became complicit in the kidnapping of foreign children with physical features considered “Aryan” by the Nazis.

  • Lebensraum
  • Leipheim Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Leipheim. 

    Leipheim Displaced Persons Camp
  • Lend-Lease

    Article

    This US policy extended material aid to the Allies before and after the United States entered World War II.  Great Britain was the original recipient of aid, but the Soviet Union later also received financial support.

    Lend-Lease
  • Leni Riefenstahl

    Article

    Leni Riefenstahl (Helene Riefenstahl) was a German dancer, actress, and film director best known for her imposing propaganda films in support of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party.

    Leni Riefenstahl
  • Leon Bakst

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Leon Bakst.

    Leon Bakst
  • Leon Idas

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Leon Idas.

    Leon Idas
  • Leon Senders

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Leon Senders. 

    Leon Senders
  • Leon Trotsky

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Leon Trotsky. 

  • Les Milles Camp

    Article

    Les Milles camp functioned as a French internment camp between the years of 1939 and 1942. It was founded under the leadership of the French Third Republic to intern enemy aliens during the Phony War, the name applied derisively to the first several months of World War II during which little fighting occurred in western Europe. In the Vichy era, Les Milles became a camp for foreign Jews awaiting emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.  

    Tags: camps
    Les Milles Camp
  • Lesbians under the Nazi Regime

    Article

    Under the Nazi regime, there was no official law or policy prohibiting sexual relations between women. Nonetheless, beginning in 1933, the Nazi regime harassed and destroyed lesbian communities and networks that had developed during the Weimar Republic (1918–1933). This created a climate of restriction and fear for many lesbians.

    Lesbians under the Nazi Regime
  • Liberation

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