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  • Making a Leader
  • Mannschafts-Stammlager (Stalag) IX B

    Article

    Millions of people suffered and died in camps, ghettos, and other sites during the Holocaust. The Nazis and their allies oversaw more than 44,000 camps, ghettos, and other sites of detention, persecution, forced labor, and murder. Among them was Mannschafts-Stammlager (Stalag) IX B.

    Tags: camps POWs
  • Marc Chagall

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the writings thrown into the flames were political texts, literature, and even art books by or about such noted figures as Marc Chagall.

    Marc Chagall
  • Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Mariendorf.

    Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp
  • Marisa Diena

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Marisa Diena.

    Marisa Diena
  • Martha and Waitstill Sharp

    Article

    Martha and Waitstill Sharp, American Unitarian aide workers, helped thousands of Jews, intellectuals, and children in Prague, Lisbon, and southern France in 1939–1940. In recognition of the risks they took to assist Jews, Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Israel, honored the Sharps as Righteous Among the Nations in 2006.

    Martha and Waitstill Sharp
  • Martin Bormann

    Article

    In the immediate aftermath of the Holocaust, the world was faced with a challenge—how to hold individually accountable those German leaders who were responsible for the commission of monstrous crimes against humanity and international peace. The International Military Tribunal (IMT) held in Nuremberg, Germany, attempted to face this immense challenge. On October 18, 1945, the chief prosecutors of the IMT brought charges against 24 leading German officials, among them Martin Bormann.

    Martin Bormann
  • Martin Niemöller: "First they came for the socialists..."

    Article

    Martin Niemöller (1892–1984) was a prominent Lutheran pastor in Germany. He emerged as an outspoken public foe of Adolf Hitler and spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps. He is perhaps best remembered for his postwar words, “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out…”

    Martin Niemöller: "First they came for the socialists..."
  • Martin Petrasek

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Martin Petrasek.

    Martin Petrasek
  • Mass Shootings at Babyn Yar (Babi Yar)

    Article

    In late September 1941, SS and German police units and their auxiliaries perpetrated one of the largest massacres of World War II. It took place at a ravine called Babyn Yar (Babi Yar) just outside the Ukrainian capital city of Kyiv.

    Tags: Kiev
    Mass Shootings at Babyn Yar (Babi Yar)
  • Mass Shootings of Jews during the Holocaust

    Article

    In the summer of 1941, following Germany's attack on the Soviet Union, Germans began to perpetrate mass shootings of Jewish men, women, and children in territory seized from Soviet forces. These murders were part of the “Final Solution to the Jewish Question,” the mass murder of Europe’s Jews.

    Mass Shootings of Jews during the Holocaust
  • Mauthausen

    Article

    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Among these sites was the Mauthausen camp. 

    Tags: camps
    Mauthausen
  • Max Brod

    Article

    In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames were the works of Max Brod. 

    Max Brod
  • Max Cukier

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Max Cukier.

    Max Cukier
  • Mein Kampf

    Article

    Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is the best known and most popular Nazi text ever published.

    Mein Kampf
  • Meir Porges

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Meir Porges.

    Meir Porges
  • Melk

    Article

    Millions of people suffered and died in camps, ghettos, and other sites during the Holocaust. The Nazis and their allies oversaw more than 44,000 camps, ghettos, and other sites of detention, persecution, forced labor, and murder. Among them was Melk, a subcamp of Mauthausen. 

    Melk
  • Milan and Adriatica Displaced Persons Camps

    Article

    For the Jews who survived the Holocaust, the end of World War II brought new challenges. Many could not or would not return to their former homelands, and options for legal immigration were limited. In spite of these difficulties, these Jewish survivors sought to rebuild their shattered lives by creating flourishing communities in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. In an unparalleled six-year period between 1945 and 1951, European Jewish life was reborn in camps such as Milan and Adriatica. 

  • Miles Lerman (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against the Germans and their Axis partners. They faced overwhelming odds and desperate scenarios, including lack of weapons and training, operating in hostile zones, parting from family members, and facing an ever-present Nazi terror. Yet thousands resisted by joining or forming partisan units. Among them was Miles Lerman.

    Miles Lerman (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)
  • Ministry of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment

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