<p>A transport of Jewish prisoners forced to march through the snow from the Bauschovitz train station to <a href="/narrative/5386">Theresienstadt</a>. Czechoslovakia, 1942.</p>

Artifact

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  • Page from volume 4 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 4 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 4 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page of International Military Tribunal program

    Artifact

    Floor plan of the courtroom. The plan appeared in a mimeographed program booklet distributed at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. 1945.

    Page of International Military Tribunal program
  • Page of recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook

    Artifact

    Eva Ostwalt was born in Cologne, Germany, to Jewish parents. She had two younger sisters, Kate and Trude. In 1927, Eva moved with her daughter, Heidemarie, and non-Jewish husband to Dresden. Eva and Karl later divorced, and Eva received custody of Heidemarie. Mother and daughter moved to Merano, Italy. When Eva’s passport expired in 1938, she had to return to Germany. Believing that Heidemarie would be safer with her father, Eva gave custody back to Karl in Dresden. Eva returned to Cologne, where both…

    Page of recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook
  • Pages of Hebrew prayer books damaged during Kristallnacht

    Artifact

    The pages photographed here are from Hebrew prayer books destroyed during the Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom of November 9 and 10, 1938. These pages were damaged by fire during the destruction of the synagogue in Bobenhausen, Germany. The Jewish community of Giessen donated them to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1989.

    Pages of Hebrew prayer books damaged during Kristallnacht
  • Palace of Justice Entry Pass

    Artifact

    Entry pass to the court building at the International Military Tribunal. This pass was issued to a U.S. military guard.

    Palace of Justice Entry Pass
  • Palace of Justice Entry Pass

    Artifact

    Back side of an entry pass to the court building at the International Military Tribunal. This pass was issued to a U.S. military guard. The pass is printed in each of the IMT's four official languages.

    Palace of Justice Entry Pass
  • Pamphlet cover

    Artifact

    Illustration from cover of a German anti-Masonic pamphlet by Friedrich Haffelbacher, entitled "Das Todesurteil ueber die Freimaurerei in Deutschland" [The Death Sentence for Freemasons in Germany].

    Tags: freemasonry
    Pamphlet cover
  • Pants belonging to Marjan Glass

    Artifact

    Pants worn by Marjan Glass as he dug anti-tank ditches for the defense of Warsaw, Poland, and then as he hastily fled the city ahead of the German advance on September 7, 1939. Glass, a lawyer, escaped with his wife and three-year-old son, and his wife's mother and brother. He left without taking the time to change from his soiled work clothing. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Pants belonging to Marjan Glass
  • Passover Haggadah printed in Shanghai

    Artifact

    A Passover Haggadah published by rabbinical students in Shanghai in 1943. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Passover Haggadah printed in Shanghai
  • Playbill

    Artifact

    Program for an evening performance sponsored by the Shanghai Jewish Club. The program included the play "The Day of His Return" and a concert of Jewish songs. On April 27, 1943, the day of this performance featuring Warsaw Jewish actress Raya Zomina, fierce fighting continued in the Warsaw ghetto between German troops and Jews who chose to resist Nazi efforts to liquidate the ghetto. Terrifying rumors about the Holocaust reached the Jewish refugees in Shanghai, but they did not receive reliable news or…

    Playbill
  • Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain

    Artifact

    Portrait of Janek Goldstein, in pencil, by Yonia Fain. Goldstein, a friend of the artist in Shanghai, was the son of Bernard Goldstein, who was active in the Bundist underground of the Warsaw ghetto and participated in the 1943 uprising. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain
  • Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain

    Artifact

    Portrait of Semek Kushner, in pencil, by Yonia Fain. Kushner's father and brother were killed in Shanghai near the end of the war during an American air raid on Hongkew. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Portrait by refugee artist Yonia Fain
  • Portrait of Masha Rolnik, by Esther Lurie

    Artifact

    "Portrait of Masha Rolnik, Leibisch concentration camp, 1944" by Esther Lurie. This image shows three sketches of Masha Rolnikaite (Rolnik) drawn by Esther Lurie, in approximately 1965, for the cover of Masha's memoir, Ikh muz dertseyin [I have to tell]. They reproduce the drawing of Masha that Esther made when both were prisoners in a forced-labor camp.   Esther Lurie was active in documenting scenes of life in the Kovno ghetto and in forced-labor camps. She buried most of her works in the hope that…

    Portrait of Masha Rolnik, by Esther Lurie
  • Poster advertising anti-Jewish boycott

    Artifact

    This poster from Munich, Germany, proclaims the April 1, 1933, boycott of Jewish-owned businesses and services offered by Jewish professionals. It calls on all Germans to honor the boycott, which began at 10 a.m. The poster was signed by the radical Nazi antisemite, Julius Streicher, official organizer of the boycott.

    Poster advertising anti-Jewish boycott
  • Postwar testimony of Rudolf Höss

    Artifact

    A page from the transcript of the testimony given by Rudolf Höss at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. At the trial, Höss testified about the gassing of Jews of Auschwitz, where he was commandant. He responded in German and communicated through a translator. Testimony dated April 2, 1946.    

    Postwar testimony of Rudolf Höss
  • Print of "Portrait of a Young Girl with Two Yellow Badges" by Esther Lurie

    Artifact

    This image shows a print of a portrait drawing by artist Esther Lurie. Lurie documented scenes of life in the Kovno ghetto and contributed to the secret archives there. The subject of the portrait is a young woman in a checked dress with two Star of David patches. This print is a version of the drawing, "Portrait of a Young Girl with Two Yellow Badges," which Lurie did in the Kovno ghetto and for which she was awarded the Dizengoff Prize in 1946 in Palestine. Because the majority of Lurie's works were…

    Print of "Portrait of a Young Girl with Two Yellow Badges" by Esther Lurie
  • Racial chart

    Artifact

    Racial chart entitled "Races of the World I/Europe and its Border Areas."

    Racial chart
  • Railcar: Interior

    Artifact

    Many different kinds of railway cars were used for deportations. They varied in size and weight. The railway car on display in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Permanent Exhibition is of just one type used. The dimensions of the railway car in the Museum's exhibition are as follows: Total length 31 feet 6 inches (9.6 meters); interior space for deportees 26 feet 2 inches (8 meters). Total height 14 feet (4.3 meters) from the bottom of the wheel to the highest point of the car; interior space…

    Railcar: Interior
  • Recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook

    Artifact

    Eva Ostwalt was born in Cologne, Germany, to Jewish parents. She had two younger sisters, Kate and Trude. In 1927, Eva moved with her daughter, Heidemarie, and non-Jewish husband to Dresden. Eva and Karl later divorced, and Eva received custody of Heidemarie. Mother and daughter moved to Merano, Italy. When Eva’s passport expired in 1938, she had to return to Germany. Believing that Heidemarie would be safer with her father, Eva gave custody back to Karl in Dresden. Eva returned to Cologne, where both…

    Recipes from Eva Ostwalt's cookbook
  • Refugee's notebook

    Artifact

    Notebook of Josef Fiszman, a refugee writer from Warsaw. He sold articles to Jewish newspapers in Shanghai and Harbin but still needed help to live from the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Writing in Yiddish, Fiszman rotated the notebook in order to write from right to left (the words "Note book" thus appear to be upside down in this image). [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Refugee's notebook
  • Refugee's suitcase

    Artifact

    A suitcase used (ca. 1939) by a Jewish refugee fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe to Japan. The suitcase is covered with labels from various stops along the journey, including one from a hotel in Moscow (top left), one for the NYK Line (top middle), and six from hotels throughout Japan. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: refugees Japan
    Refugee's suitcase
  • Refugee's writings

    Artifact

    Yiddish writings of Josef Fiszman, a refugee writer from Warsaw. These are some Inside pages of a Fiszman's journal. The journal was written in Shanghai and is entitled "The Sun Never Shines At Night." [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Refugee's writings

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