A British soldier removes refugees, wounded resisting the British, from the ship Exodus 1947. Haifa, Palestine, July 20, 1947.
A British soldier watches women SS guards who were forced to carry victims' corpses to mass graves. Bergen-Belsen, Germany, after April 15, 1945.
A Czech woman who witnessed the Nazi massacre of the male inhabitants of Lidice is sworn in at the RuSHA trial in Nuremberg, case #8 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Germany, October 30, 1947.
A Dutch survivor of the Ohrdruf camp shows the camp's gallows, which the Germans used to execute prisoners, to US forces (including Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton). Germany, April 12, 1945.
A German Jewish prisoner named Rosenthal pushes a cart in the stone quarry of the Im Fout labor camp in Morocco. The camp housed a group of foreign workers, many of whom fell ill because of poor living conditions. Im Fout, Morocco, 1941-42.
A German soldier stands guard on the eastern front. Soviet Union, February 28, 1944.
A German soldier stands on a toppled Polish monument. Krakow, Poland, 1940.
This statue commemorated the Polish victory at Grunwald over the Teutonic knights in 1410. In accordance with the plans of German occupation authorities in Poland, all physical symbols of Polish national culture were to be obliterated to make way for the "Germanization" of the country.
A German teacher singles out a child with "Aryan" features for special praise in class. The use of such examples taught schoolchildren to judge each other from a racial perspective. Germany, wartime.
In Berlin, a German woman reads a copy of the Berliner Illustrierte newspaper, featuring photographs of Mussolini's official visit to Berlin in September 1937.
A Hitler Youth ceremony, typical of those conceived by Baldur von Schirach. They aimed to strengthen dedication to Hitler. Members recited verses, sang patriotic songs, and performed "mock funerals" for "fallen comrades." Germany, date uncertain.
An American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) clothing supply center for refugees. Vilna, Lithuania, 1940.
A Jewish Brigade soldier with two members of "Kibbutz Buchenwald." "Kibbutz Buchenwald" was a group of survivors from the Buchenwald concentration camp who were preparing for agricultural work in Palestine. Antwerp, Belgium, 1946.
A Jewish New Year greeting card from Hela Brett, the donor's friend. In the winter of 1945-46, Rochelle Shulman (born Rochelle Szklarski), her father, and sisters left Poland with the help of the Brihah. They reached the Bad Reichenhall displaced persons camp and stayed there until February 1949, when they sailed to New York aboard the SS Marine Shark. Bad Reichenhall, Germany, September 1947.
This photograph shows a Jewish boy wearing the compulsory Star of David. Prague, Czechoslovakia, between September 1941 and December 1944.
A Jewish child refugee who fled eastern Europe as part of the organized postwar flight of Jews (the Brihah). Pictured here as an apprentice at the Selvino children's home for Jewish displaced persons. Italy, October 20, 1946.
Edward Arzt, a Jewish displaced person (DP), stands at the entrance to the Cinecittà DP camp in Rome, Italy, 1947. Arzt and his family lived in the camp for three years before immigrating to the United States.
Onlookers watch as a Jewish man is forced to paint anti-Jewish graffiti on a shuttered storefront. Vienna, Austria, March 1938.
False identity card of Jewish partisan Vittorio Finzi, issued in the name of Vittorio Rossi. Italy, wartime.
A Jewish refugee family prepares food with rations provided by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). Shanghai, China, 1946.
Jewish wedding in Morocco, 1942.
Photo: US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
A Jewish woman during a deportation from the Warsaw ghetto. Warsaw, Poland, between October 1940 and May 1943.
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