Otto Wolf (1927-1945) was a Czech Jewish teenager who chronicled his family's experience living in hiding in rural Moravia during World War II. His diary was published posthumously. This image shows book 4 of Otto Wolf's diary. This is the first entry by Felicitas Garda (Otto Wolf's sister) dated April 17, 1945. Felicitas continued Otto's diary after his disappearance.
Page from Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). This photograph shows a page from one of several antisemitic children's books published by Julius Streicher's Der Stürmer-Verlag, used for indoctrinating youth. The text reads, "The Jewish nose is crooked at its tip. It looks like the number 6."
Page from the antisemitic German children's book Trau Keinem Fuchs... (Trust No Fox in the Green Meadow and No Jew on his Oath). The illustration uses antisemitic caricatures in an attempt to promote Nazi racial ideology. Germany, 1936.
A page from the diary of Eugenia Hochberg, written while she was living in hiding in Brody, Poland. The page contains a timeline of important events that happened during the war, such as deaths and deportations of family and friends. Brody, Poland, July 1943–March 1944.
Illustrated page of a child's diary written in a Swiss refugee camp. The diary entry describes how they crossed the border into Switzerland. The text reads, "We came out of the woods and into a clearing: we had to be as quiet as possible because we were so close to the border. Oh! I almost forgot! Before we came out of the woods, they made us stand still for a quarter of an hour while they went to explore the area and to cut through the fence. Fortunately, shortly thereafter, we began to walk again. We saw a small guard station that was literally in front of the hole in the fence, fortunately the guard was not there. One by one, silently, we went through the hole in the fence. What emotion! Finally, we were in free territory, in Switzerland." Switzerland, 1943-1944.
World War I (1914–18) saw the first use of poison gas as a weapon of war. In this oil painting, John Singer Sargent depicted the aftermath of a mustard gas attack on British soldiers during a battle in August 1918. A line of soldiers, with bandaged eyes injured by the gas, hold on to one another as they are led to medical treatment. Around them are rows of other soldiers injured by the effects of the mustard gas, which could cause injuries such as burns and temporary blindness. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 1460)
1943 painting of the Vltava River in Prague created from a photograph by Bedrich Fritta when he was imprisoned in Theresienstadt. Fritta (1909-1945) was a Czech Jewish artist who created drawings and paintings depicting conditions in the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. Fritta was deported to Auschwitz in October 1944. He died there a week after his arrival.
Panzer tanks of Erwin Rommel's Africa Corps during an advance against British armed forces. Libya, 1941-1942.
Haviva Reik and other parachutists from Palestine, under British command, sent to Slovakia to aid Jews during the Slovak national uprising. Hayim Hermesh (left), Haviva Reik (second from left), Rafi Reiss (behind Reik), Abba Berdichev (second from the right), and Zvi Ben-Yaakov (right), on the Tri Duby airfield before being sent to Slovakia. Czechoslovakia, September 1944.
A view of the Buchenwald concentration camp after the liberation of the camp. Buchenwald, Germany, after April 11, 1945.
General Michael (Rola) Zymierski (top row, center), commander of the Polish communist Armia Ludowa, poses with a partisan unit in the Parczew Forest. The partisan unit includes the Jewish physician, Michael Temchin (bottom right).
Partisans in the Naliboki forest, near Novogrudok. They were from various fighting units including the Bielski group and escapees from the Mir Ghetto on guard duty at an airstrip in the Naliboki Forest. Poland, July 1944.
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