Shortly after liberation, an emaciated concentration camp inmate stands between two members of the International Red Cross. Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, May 1945.
An emaciated woman sells the compulsory Star of David armbands for Jews. In the background are concert posters; almost all are destroyed. Warsaw ghetto, Poland, September 19, 1941.
This photograph was taken by Heinrich Joest, a German army sergeant during World War II. On September 19, 1941, he took 140 images of every aspect of life and death in the Warsaw ghetto.
A Soviet army instructor trains partisans in the use of grenades. Soviet Union, wartime.
Detail of an interior bridge at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum with the names of victims etched in glass. Washington, DC, 1996.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (left) and her daughter, Carla (second from left), visit with Dr. Mohamed Helmy (second from right) and his wife, Emmi (right), in Berlin in 1968. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (seated, center), her daughter, and son-in-law visit Dr. Mohamed Helmy (seated, left) and his wife, Emmi (seated, right), in Berlin in 1980. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Anne Frank at 11 years of age, two years before going into hiding. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1940.
Anne Frank with her mother and sister. Frankfurt, Germany, 1933.
Slovak prime minister Vojtech Tuka (front row, standing) announces Slovakia's entry into the Axis alliance (initially Germany, Italy, and Japan; also joined by Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria). Berlin, Germany, November 1940.
Protesters at an anti-Israel rally. Washington, DC, March 2010.
During the anti-Jewish boycott, an SA man stands outside a Jewish-owned store with a sign demanding that Germans not buy from Jews. Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
Propaganda cartoon by Seppla (Josef Plank) warning of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy. The cartoon depicts an octopus with a Star of David over its head and tentacles encompassing a globe. Germany, date uncertain.
A motorcyclist reads a sign stating "Jews are not welcomed here." Germany, ca. 1935.
Viennese pedestrians view a large Nazi sign posted on a restaurant window informing the public that this business is run by an organization of the Nazi Party and that Jews are not welcome. Vienna, Austria, March-April 1938.
An anti-Jewish sign posted on a street in Bavaria reads "Jews are not wanted here." Julien Bryan took this photograph while visiting Germany in 1937. Back in the United States, Bryan regularly gave lectures with accompanying motion pictures to convey the looming dangers he foresaw in Europe.
During one of these presentations in 1938, he said: "And then a sign like this. Along the Rhine you see these signs against the Jew everywhere, … all through central and southern Germany, saying simply and uniformly the same thing. Jews are not wanted here…. Out of my own curiosity because I am a reporter who is anxious to get both sides of the story – I talked further with these peasants and in a number of cases I asked the German people along the Rhine … how come these signs? Who put them up? They rather laughed about it all and not too pleasantly, and they denied having anything to do with it..."
Citizens would have viewed this sign in public every day. Think about which municipal officials might have had to approve the content of the sign and its display in a public area. Who might have created it and decided where to hang it? What does this indicate about the involvement of citizens and officials in public discrimination?
Sign on a phone booth in Munich that prohibits Jews from using the public telephone. Munich, Germany, 1942.
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