This photograph, taken by Dorothea Lange, shows Florence Owens Thompson and her children in February or March of 1936 in Nipomo, California. Lange recounted later, "...There she sat in that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it."
A replica of "Refugee" bear and a photo of a Darfurian child refugee, items taken by Commander Mark Polansky (pictured) on a December 2006 Space Shuttle mission.
A group of Polish Jewish children (known as the "Tehran Children"), who arrived in Palestine via Iran, at the Mikveh Israel agricultural village. Palestine, February or March 1943.
Photograph of "The Three Musketeers" —three school friends in the Lodz ghetto. Left: Lola Tenenbaum Rapoport, who survived with her husband. Center: Niusia Friedman, who was killed in Auschwitz. Lola sent this photo to Blanka Rothschild from Australia. Blanka (right) says "It's my only memento of the ghetto."
With the end of World War II and collapse of the Nazi regime, survivors of the Holocaust faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. With little in the way of financial resources and few, if any, surviving family members, most eventually emigrated from Europe to start their lives again. Between 1945 and 1952, more than 80,000 Holocaust survivors immigrated to the United States. Blanka was one of them.
The "You Are My Witnesses" wall in the Hall of Witness at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC, January 2003.
Panel from the exhibition A Dangerous Lie: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion which was on display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum from 2006–18. The exhibition explored the continuing impact of the most widely distributed antisemitic publication of modern times.
United Nations personnel vaccinate an 11-year-old concentration camp survivor who was a victim of medical experiments at the Auschwitz camp. Photograph taken in the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp, Germany, May 1946.
Detail of the 14th Street facade of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC, April 2003.
A 1915 portrait of Willem Arondeus. During World War II, Arondeus, a gay member of the Dutch resistance, participated in an attack on the Amsterdam Population Registry offices. His group set fire to several thousand files in an attempt to destroy government records of Jews and others sought by the Nazis. Soon after the attack, his unit was betrayed. The Nazis arrested and executed Arondeus in 1943. Blaricum, the Netherlands, 1915.
Abraham and his family fled from Berlin to Amsterdam in October 1938. They found refuge in the Netherlands until January 28, 1943, when all the members of the Muhlbaum family, except Abraham, were deported to Westerbork. Abraham escaped over the rooftops during the round-up. He gradually established a new life as a member of a Dutch resistance group that included Joop Westerweel.
In 1944, Abraham was arrested as a member of the resistance (his Jewish identity remained hidden). He was held in several prisons and transit camps before being deported to Neuengamme on May 24, 1944. As a "Night and Fog" prisoner, he was entirely cut off from the outside world. No one knew his whereabouts, or even if he was alive. After three weeks at Neuengamme, he was transferred to the Natzweiler concentration camp near Strasbourg, and from there, to Dachau, in September 1944.
Following the liberation of Dachau on April 29, 1945, Abraham returned to the Netherlands, where he remained until immigrating to the United States in the 1950s.
Nazi propaganda constantly reinforced the notion that Hitler was the embodiment of the national will. Here, a determined looking Hitler in military dress stands with clenched fist, poised for action above the adoring crowd. The text on the poster says "Yes! Leader, We Follow You!" (Ja! Führer wir folgen Dir!)
This poster, designed for a 1934 public referendum on uniting the posts of German chancellor and president, conveys unanimous popular support for Hitler.
1936 poster: "All of Germany Listens to the Führer with the People's Radio." The poster depicts a crowd surrounding a radio. The radio looms large, symbolizing the mass appeal and broad audience for Nazi broadcasts. Bundesarchiv Koblenz (Plak003-022-025)
Prewar studio portrait in Sighet of Jewish siblings Suri and Ari Deutsch, both of whom died in the Holocaust. This photograph comes from the album of their cousin, Rosalia Dratler Roiter. Rosalia was deported to and died at Auschwitz. Sighet, Romania, 1937.
1943 portrait of Edgar Krasa drawn by Leo Haas in Theresienstadt. Haas (1901-1983) was a Czech Jewish artist who, while imprisoned in Nisko and Theresienstadt during World War II, painted portraits and produced a large volume of drawings documenting the daily life of the prisoners.
1943 still life of a violin and sheet of music behind prison bars by Bedrich Fritta (1909–1945). Fritta was a Czech Jewish artist who created drawings and paintings depicting conditions in the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. He was deported to Auschwitz in October 1944; he died there a week after his arrival.
1943 watercolor landscape of Theresienstadt painted by Otto Samisch. Despite the terrible living conditions and the constant threat of deportation, Theresienstadt had a highly developed cultural life.
This poster from 1945 shows an embattled German family proclaiming, "Frontline City Frankfurt will be held!" A Frontstadt was a city Hitler declared must be defended against Allied attack at all costs. In the final months of the war, propaganda efforts were directed at rallying the populace for a final defense of the country.
Miles Lerman (who married Regina's sister Krysia), Lodz, Poland, 1945.
Photograph of Regina (Renia) taken on June 2, 1945, in Lodz, Poland.
A Czech postage stamp issued in 1957, commemorating the fifteenth anniversary of the destruction of Lidice.
Scene during the 2001 Days of Remembrance ceremony, in the Rotunda of the US Capitol. Flags of the liberating divisions feature prominently in the Museum's Days of Remembrance ceremonies. Washington, DC, 2001.
Benjamin Meed (left) with Fred S. Zeidman, Colin L. Powell, Elie Wiesel, and Ruth B. Mandel at the 2003 Days of Remembrance ceremony in the US Capitol Rotunda.
Blanka was an only child in a close-knit family in Lodz, Poland. Her father died in 1937. After the German invasion of Poland, Blanka and her mother remained in Lodz with Blanka's grandmother, who was unable to travel. Along with other relatives, they were forced into the Lodz ghetto in 1940. She and her mother were deported to the Ravensbrueck camp in Germany in 1944. From Ravensbrueck, Blanka and her mother were sent to a subcamp of Sachsenhausen. Blanka was forced to work in an airplane factory (Arado-Werke). Her mother was sent to another camp. Soviet forces liberated Blanka in spring 1945. Blanka, living in abandoned houses, made her way back to Lodz. She discovered that none of her relatives, including her mother, had survived. Blanka then moved westward to Berlin, eventually to a displaced persons camp. She immigrated to the United States in 1947.
After the war, her journey took her to the United States. Her experiences reveal the complexity of starting over.
Born Naftali Saleschutz, Norman was the youngest of nine children in a devout Hasidic Jewish family. They lived in Kolbuszowa, Poland. In the Hasidic tradition, he wore a long black coat and shoulder-length earlocks. He first faced antisemitism in the second grade when his teacher cut one earlock off each Jewish boy.
Born as Regina Laks in 1929, she was raised in Starachowice, an industrial city in central Poland. Her mother, Pola Tennenblum, was an active member of the Zionist movement. Her father, Isaac Laks, was an engineer in the lumber industry. She had two older sisters.
This 2005 Syrian edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion claims that the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were orchestrated by a Zionist conspiracy. The final chapter predicts the eventual destruction of the State of Israel. Published in Damascus, Syria, 2005. Gift of the Embassy of Israel.
Aron was born to a middle-class Jewish family in Slonim, a part of Poland between the two world wars. His parents owned a clothing store. After studying in a technical school, Aron worked as a motion-picture projectionist in a small town near Slonim. The Soviet army took over Slonim in September 1939. War broke out between Germany and the Soviet Union in June 1941. Aron returned to Slonim. The Germans soon occupied Slonim, and later forced the Jews into a ghetto.
A British soldier removes refugees, wounded resisting the British, from the ship Exodus 1947. Haifa, Palestine, July 20, 1947.
A British soldier watches women SS guards who were forced to carry victims' corpses to mass graves. Bergen-Belsen, Germany, after April 15, 1945.
A Czech woman who witnessed the Nazi massacre of the male inhabitants of Lidice is sworn in at the RuSHA trial in Nuremberg, case #8 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Germany, October 30, 1947.
A Dutch survivor of the Ohrdruf camp shows the camp's gallows, which the Germans used to execute prisoners, to US forces (including Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton). Germany, April 12, 1945.
A German Jewish prisoner named Rosenthal pushes a cart in the stone quarry of the Im Fout labor camp in Morocco. The camp housed a group of foreign workers, many of whom fell ill because of poor living conditions. Im Fout, Morocco, 1941-42.
A German soldier stands guard on the eastern front. Soviet Union, February 28, 1944.
A German soldier stands on a toppled Polish monument. Krakow, Poland, 1940.
This statue commemorated the Polish victory at Grunwald over the Teutonic knights in 1410. In accordance with the plans of German occupation authorities in Poland, all physical symbols of Polish national culture were to be obliterated to make way for the "Germanization" of the country.
A German teacher singles out a child with "Aryan" features for special praise in class. The use of such examples taught schoolchildren to judge each other from a racial perspective. Germany, wartime.
In Berlin, a German woman reads a copy of the Berliner Illustrierte newspaper, featuring photographs of Mussolini's official visit to Berlin in September 1937.
A Hitler Youth ceremony, typical of those conceived by Baldur von Schirach. They aimed to strengthen dedication to Hitler. Members recited verses, sang patriotic songs, and performed "mock funerals" for "fallen comrades." Germany, date uncertain.
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