German women at work in the offices of the German Census Bureau. The board gives directions for tabulation: the center column instructs that number 3 is the indicator to be used for Jews. Germany, 1933.
Young German soldiers assist in the deportation of Jews from the Zychlin ghetto to the Chelmno killing center. The Nazis planned this deportation to fall on the Jewish holiday of Purim. Poland, March 3, 1942.
Passport issued to Lore Oppenheimer, a German Jew, with "J" for "Jude" stamped on the card. "Sara" was added to the names of all German Jewish women. Hildesheim, Germany, July 3, 1939.
Hitler during a triumphal tour of the Sudetenland following the Munich agreement of September 1938. The agreement ceded the largely German-speaking Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. Eger, Czechoslovakia, October 3, 1938.
Jews were the main targets of Nazi genocide. Learn about other individuals from a broad range of backgrounds who were imprisoned in the Nazi camp system.
A newspaper advertisement for the Damenklub Violetta, a Berlin club frequented by lesbians, 1928. Before the Nazis came to power in 1933, lesbian communities and networks flourished in Germany.
Approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. This number represented 1.7% of Europe's total population and more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population. By 1945, most European Jews—2 out of every 3—...
Approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. This number represented 1.7% of Europe's total population and more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population. By 1945, most European Jews—2 out of every...
Portrait of David Kamchi, son of Masliach Kamchi, and his wife Sara. They lived at Gostivarska 3 in Bitola. This photograph was one of the individual and family portraits of members of the Jewish community of Bitola, Macedonia, used by Bulgarian occupation authorities to register the Jewish population prior to its deportation in March 1943.
Soviet prisoners of war wait for food in Stalag (prison camp) 8C. More than 3 million Soviet soldiers died in German custody, mostly from malnutrition and exposure. Zagan, Poland, February 1942. Second only to the Jews, Soviet prisoners of war were the largest group of victims of Nazi racial policy.
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