Young German soldiers assist in the deportation of Jews from the Zychlin ghetto to the Chelmno killing center. The Nazis planned this deportation to fall on the Jewish holiday of Purim. Poland, March 3, 1942.
Passport issued to Lore Oppenheimer, a German Jew, with "J" for "Jude" stamped on the card. "Sara" was added to the names of all German Jewish women. Hildesheim, Germany, July 3, 1939.
Hitler during a triumphal tour of the Sudetenland following the Munich agreement of September 1938. The agreement ceded the largely German-speaking Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. Eger, Czechoslovakia, October 3, 1938.
A newspaper advertisement for the Damenklub Violetta, a Berlin club frequented by lesbians, 1928. Before the Nazis came to power in 1933, lesbian communities and networks flourished in Germany.
At the beginning of WWII, people with mental or physical disabilities were targeted for murder in what the Nazis called the T-4, or "euthanasia," program.
Approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. This number represented 1.7% of Europe's total population and more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population. By 1945, most European Jews—2 out of every 3—...
Soviet prisoners of war wait for food in Stalag (prison camp) 8C. More than 3 million Soviet soldiers died in German custody, mostly from malnutrition and exposure. Zagan, Poland, February 1942. Second only to the Jews, Soviet prisoners of war were the largest group of victims of Nazi racial policy.
Wedding portrait of former Bielski partisan, Berl Kagan. Emden, Germany, April 3, 1948. Pictured from left to right are Ita Rubin (the bride), her mother, Sarah Rubin, and Berl Kagan. All three were passengers on the Exodus 1947.
Portrait of David Kamchi, son of Masliach Kamchi, and his wife Sara. They lived at Gostivarska 3 in Bitola. This photograph was one of the individual and family portraits of members of the Jewish community of Bitola, Macedonia, used by Bulgarian occupation authorities to register the Jewish population prior to its deportation in March 1943.
Police search a messenger at the entrance to the building where Vorwaerts, a Social-Democratic Party newspaper, was published. The building was subsequently occupied during the suppression of the political left wing in Germany that was carried out in response to the Reichstag Fire. Berlin, Germany, March 3–4, 1933.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.