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  • Reichstag Fire Decree

    Article

    The Reichstag Fire Decree of February 1933 restricted individual freedoms, and allowed Hitler's government to overrule state and local laws and overthrow state and local governments.

    Reichstag Fire Decree
  • Dismissal letter from the Berlin transit authority

    Document

    A letter written by the Berlin transit authority (Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft) to Viktor Stern, informing him of his dismissal from his post with their agency as of September 20, 1933. This action was taken to comply with provisions of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. On April 7, the German government issued the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums), which excluded Jews and political opponents…

    Dismissal letter from the Berlin transit authority
  • Moses Rechnitz: Maps

    Media Essay

    Moses Rechnitz was born to Jewish parents in the Polish town of Bedzin on June 3, 1923. Moses was 16 years old when German troops invaded Poland in September 1939. By 1941, he was a slave laborer on a German railroad construction project outside o...

  • Anna Seghers

    Article

    Anna Seghers was an influential, antifascist author. Her novel, in which she spoke out against social injustice, was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.

  • Erich Mühsam

    Photo

    Identification picture of Erich Mühsam taken in the Oranienburg concentration camp. Mühsam, an anarchist and a pacifist, worked as an editor and writer; he was imprisoned during World War I for opposing the war. Arrested during the massive roundup of Nazi political opponents following the Reichstag fire (February 27, 1933), Mühsam was tortured to death in Oranienburg on July 11, 1934. Oranienburg, Germany, February 3, 1934.

    Erich Mühsam
  • Mass grave for individuals murdered by the NKVD in Lvov prisons

    Photo

    A mass grave dug by Jewish forced laborers for the bodies of individuals murdered by the NKVD in Lvov prisons. The NKVD (Soviet secret police) murdered thousands of Ukrainian nationalists, as well as some Jews and Poles, before retreating from the Nazi invasion. The Germans and their Ukrainian collaborators then used the massacre as a pretext for anti-Jewish pogroms, claiming that the Jews had helped the secret police. Lvov, Poland, July 3, 1941.

    Mass grave for individuals murdered by the NKVD in Lvov prisons
  • The Netherlands

    Article

    After the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940, a civil administration was installed under SS auspices. Arthur Seyss-Inquart was appointed Reich Commissar. He presided over a German administration that included many Austrian-born Nazis. They in turn supervised the Dutch civil service. This arrangement was to prove fateful for the Jews of the Netherlands. During 1940, the German occupation authorities banned Jews from the civil service and required Jews to register the assets of their business…

    The Netherlands
  • Fire Oaths

    Article

    “Fire Oaths” were statements that declared why the works of certain authors were thrown into the flames during the 1933 burning of books under the Nazi regime.

    Fire Oaths
  • The 103rd Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 103rd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Kaufering in 1945.

  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings

    Article

    American military tribunals presided over 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings

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