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Born to Jewish parents in Poland, Gisha Galina Bursztyn moved to the city of Warsaw after she married. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Warsaw fell four weeks later, and a ghetto was set up in November 1940. During a massive roundup i...
Soviet authorities issued this receipt, in Russian, to Moshe Zupnik for the rubles they confiscated from him before he left the Soviet Union. Soviet authorities routinely confiscated most rubles and other valuables from Jewish refugees before they boarded steamers bound for Japan and left the Soviet Union. Vladivostok, Soviet Union, January 22, 1941. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Stutthof began as a civilian internment camp under the Danzig police chief and then became a "labor education" camp under the German Security Police. In January 1942, Stutthof became a regular concentration camp. Stutthof prisoners were used as fo...
Concentration camp survivor Jadwiga Dzido shows her scarred leg to the Nuremberg court, while an expert medical witness explains the nature of the procedures inflicted on her in the Ravensbrück concentration camp on November 22, 1942. The experiments, including injections of highly potent bacteria, were performed by defendants Herta Oberheuser and Fritz Ernst Fischer. December 20, 1946.
Deportation of Jews from Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there between eleven and eighteen days, before being deported by train in three transports between March 22 and 29, to Treblinka.
German troops overran Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France in six weeks starting in May 1940. Anti-Jewish measures soon followed in occupied western Europe.
Crossing the Rhine River allowed US and British troops to advance into the interior of Germany, helping to bring about the defeat of the Third Reich in WWII
The White Rose, led by students including Hans and Sophie Scholl, was an anti-Nazi group during WWII. Its members spread leaflets denouncing the regime.
Jack London was an American author who wrote “The Call of the Wild.” His socialist leaning works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
On January 22, 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced a new policy to rescue and provide relief for Jews and other groups persecuted by Nazi Germany and its collaborators. The War Refugee Board, tasked with carrying out these programs, likely saved tens of thousands of lives. The War Refugee Board was the first and only official American response to the crimes we now call the Holocaust.
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