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  • Trawniki: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Trawniki in German-occupied Poland.

    Trawniki: Key Dates
  • Reinhard Heydrich: Key Dates

    Article

    Key dates in the life of Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, the SS and police agency most directly concerned with implementing Final Solution.

    Reinhard Heydrich: Key Dates
  • Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates

    Article

    Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from 1929 until 1945. Learn more about key dates in the life of Heinrich Himmler.

    Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates
  • The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"

    Article

    The Wannsee Conference was a high-level meeting of Nazi Party and German State officials to coordinate “the Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Learn more.

    The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"
  • 1940: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during 1940 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1940: Key Dates
  • Sachsenhausen: Liberation and Postwar Trials

    Article

    Learn about the death march of prisoners from the Sachsenhausen camp, liberation of the remaining prisoners, and postwar trials of camp staff.

    Sachsenhausen: Liberation and Postwar Trials
  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #4: The Pohl Case

    Article

    The Pohl Case was Case #4 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #4: The Pohl Case
  • Youth Camps

    Article

    Moringen, Uckermark, and Litzmannstadt were reform camps established to confine young people who were deemed to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals. Learn more

    Youth Camps
  • Liberation of Lublin-Majdanek

    Timeline Event

    July 23, 1944. On this date, Soviet forces liberated the Lublin/Majdanek concentration camp in Poland.

    Liberation of Lublin-Majdanek
  • The 90th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 90th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Flossenbürg concentration camp in 1945.

  • At the Killing Centers

    Article

    The Nazis established killing centers in German-occupied Europe to mass murder Jews. Learn more about what happened to Jewish people at these killing centers.

    At the Killing Centers
  • Ritchie Boys

    Article

    “Ritchie Boys” is a term used for American soldiers who trained at Camp Ritchie during World War II. Several thousand were Jewish refugees from Europe. Learn more.

    Ritchie Boys
  • World War II: In Depth

    Article

    Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.

    Tags: World War II
    World War II: In Depth
  • Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime

    Article

    Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.

    Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime
  • Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes receiving her first set of false papers

    Oral History

    In 1933 Barbara's family moved to Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. They became friends of Anne Frank and her family. The Germans invaded the Netherlands in 1940. Barbara's boyfriend, Manfred, had underground contacts and she got false papers. Her mother, sister, and father were deported to Westerbork and then to Auschwitz. Barbara survived using her false papers and worked for the resistance. She helped take Jews to hiding places and also hid Jews in an apartment held in her false name.

    Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes receiving her first set of false papers
  • Freiberg

    Article

    Learn about the Freiburg subcamp of Flossenbürg, including its establishment, prisoner population, and conditions there.

  • Berga-Elster ("Schwalbe V")

    Article

    At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.

    Berga-Elster ("Schwalbe V")
  • Betje Jakobs

    ID Card

    Betje and her sister Saartje were born to Jewish parents in the town of Zwolle in the Netherlands' north central province of Overijssel. Betje was known affectionately as "Bep" to her friends. The Jakobs family owned a successful sporting goods store. 1933-39: As a young girl, Betje enjoyed playing the piano, knitting and tennis. At age 16, while still in secondary school, she began to date Maurits Wijnberg, a boy two years her senior, whose family owned Zwolle's Hotel Wijnberg. 1940-42: The Germans…

    Betje Jakobs
  • Mendel Grynberg

    ID Card

    Mendel was raised in a large, Yiddish-speaking, religious Jewish family in Sokolow Podlaski, a manufacturing town in central Poland with a large Jewish population of about 5,000. Upon completing school, Mendel worked as a shoemaker. He was also active in a local Zionist organization. 1933-39: Mendel was married and had a family when the Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Aircraft bombed the town's market and other civilian targets before victorious German troops marched into Sokolow Podlaski on…

    Mendel Grynberg
  • Benjamin Soep

    ID Card

    Benjamin, called "Benno" by his family and friends, grew up in a religious Jewish household in Amsterdam. Benno's father, a successful diamond manufacturer, was president of the Amsterdam Jewish community. Benno had two younger sisters and enjoyed collecting stamps. 1933-39: After he obtained some work experience in a department store, Benno joined his father in the diamond business. Benno adhered strictly to Jewish law. He loved tennis and skiing, and in 1938, while skiing in Switzerland, he met a girl…

    Benjamin Soep
  • Rachel Lea Galperin

    ID Card

    Rachel, born Rachel Karpus, was born to a Jewish family in the northeastern Polish city of Vilna. At the age of 16, Rachel married Reuven Galperin, a typesetter for a Jewish newspaper in the city, and the couple subsequently had 16 children. Only nine of the children lived to the 1930s. 1933-39: In addition to caring for her children, Rachel also operated a small grocery on Nowigorod Street. In 1938 Rachel's husband died. One year later, on September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland and 17 days after that…

    Tags: Vilna Poland
    Rachel Lea Galperin
  • Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy

    Document

    Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy stating that Anna Gutman (Boros) married an Egyptian man in a ceremony held in Helmy’s home. Dr. Helmy also received certification from the Central Islamic Institute in Berlin attesting to Anna’s conversion to Islam, which the marriage certificate reflects. Translation: Marriage certificate On Wednesday June 16, 1943, we have certified the marriage contract between Abdelaziz Helmy Hammad, 36 years old, who was born on May 6th, 1906, in Faqous,…

    Tags: rescue
    Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy
  • Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding

    Artifact

    These tiny black, white, gold, and clear glass beads were used by Rachel “Chelly” de Groot from November 1942 to April 1944 and recovered by her brother Louis after the war. Chelly used the beads to make handicrafts. On November 16, 1942, Chelly, then 15, Louis, 13, and their parents Meijer and Sophia left Arnhem and went into hiding after the Dutch police warned them of a raid. Meijer and Sophia hid in Amsterdam while Chelly and Louis moved around to different locations. In summer or fall 1943,…

    Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding
  • German-Soviet Pact

    Article

    The German-Soviet Pact paved the way for the joint invasion and occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in September 1939.

    German-Soviet Pact
  • Sally Izikowitz

    ID Card

    Sally was an only son born to Jewish parents in the Baltic port of Liepaja. When Sally was a child, his family moved to Aizpute, a small town 25 miles northeast of Liepaja. There his parents, along with a partner, opened a dry-goods store. Sally attended a German-language private Jewish school in Aizpute. 1933-39: The Izikowitz's store was well-known in the city. People purchased fabric there to be made into clothes or furniture coverings. In 1939 Sally graduated secondary school. Germany invaded Poland…

    Tags: Latvia
    Sally Izikowitz

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