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On April 1, 1933—less than 3 months after rising to power—the Nazis staged a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses. The boycott signaled the start of the Nazi movement to exclude Jews from all aspects of German soci...
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (left), US president Franklin D. Roosevelt (center), and British prime minister Winston S. Churchill (right) at the Tehran Conference. Tehran, Iran, between November 28 and December 1, 1943.
A survivor stokes smoldering human remains in a crematorium oven that was still lit in the Dachau camp. Photograph taken upon the liberation of the camp. Dachau, Germany, April 29-May 1, 1945.
Two ovens inside the crematorium at the Dachau concentration camp. Dachau, Germany, July 1, 1945. This image is among the commonly reproduced and distributed images of liberation. These photographs provided powerful documentation of the crimes of the Nazi era.
Birds-eye view of the fenced-in cell block where defendants in the International Military Tribunal war crimes trial were imprisoned. Nuremberg, Germany, between November 20, 1945, and October 1, 1946.
Photograph showing Blanka when she was about 1 year old, ca. 1923. She received this photograph many years later, after she came to America, from her grandmother's half brother.
A mother checks on her sick daughter inside the container where they live in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp near Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. September 1, 2015.
Scene during the boycott of Jewish businesses. A sign on truck carrying Storm Troopers (SA) urges "Germans! Defend yourselves. Don't buy from Jews." Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
Soldiers from unidentified units of Einsatzgruppe C look through the possessions of Jews massacred at Babi Yar, a ravine near Kiev. Soviet Union, September 29–October 1, 1941.
Bulgarian leader Bogdan Filov (standing) and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (seated, center) during the signing of the Tripartite Pact. This treaty formally aligned Bulgaria with the Axis powers. Vienna, Austria, March 1, 1941.
A boycott sign posted on the display window of a Jewish-owned business reads: "Germans defend yourselves against Jewish atrocity propaganda. Buy only at German shops!" Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
Aliyah Bet ("illegal" immigration) ship Tiger Hill, carrying Jewish refugees from Europe, lands in Tel Aviv, Palestine. Jewish residents of Palestine greet the ship. September 1, 1939.
SA men in front of Jewish-owned store urge a boycott with the signs reading "Germans! Defend Yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!" Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
Members of the Storm Troopers (SA), with boycott signs, block the entrance to a Jewish-owned shop. One of the signs exhorts: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!" Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
During the anti-Jewish boycott, an SA man stands outside a Jewish-owned store with a sign demanding that Germans not buy from Jews. Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
Liberated inmates of the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp, located near Nordhausen, view an area where camouflaged V-1 and V-2 rocket parts were stored. Germany, after April 11, 1945.
Members of a US congressional committee investigating German atrocities view a V-2 rocket on the assembly line of an underground factory at the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp, near Nordhausen. Germany, May 1, 1945.
Members of a US congressional committee investigating German atrocities view the emaciated body of a dead prisoner at the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp, near Nordhausen. Germany, May 1, 1945.
Jewish youth attend a class on transplanting seedlings, part of a general course in farming sponsored by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee at the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp. Germany, August 1, 1946.
SS officers and German nurses gather during the dedication ceremony of the new SS hospital in Auschwitz, September 1, 1944. Among those pictured are Karl Höcker, Josef Kramer, and SS-Hauptsturmführer Heinrich Schwarz.
The defendants and their lawyers at the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. Defendant Albert Speer (standing at right) delivers a statement in the dock. Nuremberg, Germany, November 20, 1945-October 1, 1946.
September 3, 1939. On this date, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany after the German invasion of Poland.
Chart with the title "Die Nürnberger Gesetze" [Nuremberg Race Laws]. In the fall of 1935, German Jews lost their citizenship according to the definitions posed in these new regulations. Only "full" Germans were entitled to the full protection of the law. This chart was used to aid Germans in understanding the laws. White circles represent "Aryan" Germans, black circles represent Jews, and partially shaded circles represent “mixed raced” individuals. The chart has columns explaining the…
The European rail network played a crucial role in the implementation of the Final Solution. Millions were deported by rail to killing centers and other sites.
Julius Streicher, an early Nazi Party members, was an organizer of the anti-Jewish boycott of April 1933 and publisher of the virulently antisemitic Der Stürmer.
Key dates in the life of Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, the SS and police agency most directly concerned with implementing Final Solution.
Explore a timeline of key events during the history of the Krakow ghetto in German-occupied Poland.
Righteous Among the Nations are non-Jewish individuals honored by Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, for risking their lives to aid Jews during the Holocaust.
The Enabling Act of March 1933 allowed the Reich government to issue laws without the consent of Germany’s parliament. It laid the foundation for the Nazification of German society.
April 7, 1933. On this date, the German government issued the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service excluding Jews from civil service.
Learn about conditions and forced labor in Dora-Mittelbau, the center of an extensive network of forced-labor camps for the production of V-2 missiles and other weapons.
Szlamach Radoszynski was 27 years old when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. The following year, Szlamach and the rest of the Jews of Warsaw were forced into a ghetto. After the ghetto uprising in 1943, Szlamach was deported to Auschwitz a...
Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. The Blitzkrieg ("lightning war") campaign in Poland was short and decisive. Warsaw, the capital of Poland, surrendered on September 27. In early October, Adolf Hitler visited Warsaw to review his forces. This footage shows victorious German army units parading before Hitler in the streets of the devastated city.
This poster from Munich, Germany, proclaims the April 1, 1933, boycott of Jewish-owned businesses and services offered by Jewish professionals. It calls on all Germans to honor the boycott, which began at 10 a.m. The poster was signed by the radical Nazi antisemite, Julius Streicher, official organizer of the boycott.
Insignia of the 1st Infantry Division. The 1st Infantry Division's nickname, the "Big Red One," originated from the division's insignia, a large red number "1" on a khaki field. This nickname was adopted during World War I, when the 1st was the first American division to arrive in France.
American judges (top row, seated) during the Doctors Trial, case #1 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Presiding Judge Walter B. Beals is seated second from the left. Nuremberg, Germany, December 9, 1946–August 20, 1947.
Fritz Sauckel follows the proceedings of the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and was sentenced to death. Photograph taken in Nuremberg, Germany, between November 20, 1945, and October 1, 1946.
In 1978, the President's Commission on the Holocaust was charged with submitting a report on the creation of a Holocaust memorial in the US. Read excerpts.
Portrait of writer Sigrid Undset, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928. Often with feminist themes, her novels were banned and burned in part because of her public criticism of the Nazi regime. Photo taken by Anders Beer Wilse on July 1, 1923.
Runners competing in the 800-meter race at the Olympic games in Berlin. In this photograph, American John Woodruff is just visible in the outside lane. He came from behind to win the race in 1:52.9 minutes. Source record ID: 95/73/12A.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1946-1948. Learn about the aftermath of the Holocaust and the obstacles survivors faced.
At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1942 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
Learn about the Freiburg subcamp of Flossenbürg, including its establishment, prisoner population, and conditions there.
The Moringen camp was one of the so-called youth protection camps that the Nazi regime established for young people who were alleged to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals.
The "Jewish boycott" ("Judenboykott") of April 1, 1933, was the first coordinated action undertaken by the Nazi regime against Germany’s Jews. Learn more.
During the Holocaust, concentration camp prisoners received tattoos only at one location, the...
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Auschwitz camp complex in German-occupied Poland.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1944 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
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