Morris Laub (right), American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee director for Cyprus, reviews supplies sent for the 12,000 Jews still interned on the island. Cyprus, December 9, 1948.
On November 9–10, 1938, Nazi Party officials set off a series of violent pogroms against Jews in Germany and Austria. This event came to be known as the "Night of Broken Glass."
Schoolchildren wait in anticipation for the arrival of the US Ambassador to the United Nations and members of the UN Security Council, who have traveled to South Sudan to underscore their support for the January referendum on the region’s independence. October 9, 2010.
The Operation Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. It began on November 8 and concluded on November 16, 1942. It resulted from an uneasy compromise between the Western Allies, and was intended to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union by imperiling Axis forces in the region and by enabling an invasion of Southern Europe in 1943. Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the operation was designed as a pincer…
Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from 1929 until 1945. Learn more about key dates in the life of Heinrich Himmler.
February 27, 1925. On this date, Adolf Hitler declared the reformulation of the Nazi Party with himself as the leader.
The pages photographed here are from Hebrew prayer books destroyed during the Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom of November 9 and 10, 1938. These pages were damaged by fire during the destruction of the synagogue in Bobenhausen, Germany. The Jewish community of Giessen donated them to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1989.
The Nazis took control of the police and turned Germany into a dictatorship; implemented a racist ideology; and carried out brutal policies across annexed and occupied Europe. Learn more.
Portrait of Victoria and Isak Assael, the daughter and son of Shabetai Assael. They were students and lived at Sremska 9 in Bitola. This photograph was one of the individual and family portraits of members of the Jewish community of Bitola, Macedonia, used by Bulgarian occupation authorities to register the Jewish population prior to its deportation in March 1943.
American judges (top row, seated) during the Doctors Trial, case #1 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Presiding Judge Walter B. Beals is seated second from the left. Nuremberg, Germany, December 9, 1946–August 20, 1947.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.