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  • Theresienstadt: Final Weeks, Liberation, and Postwar Trials


    The SS and police used the Slovak uprising as an opportunity to round up the last of the Slovak Jews. In late 1944, shortly after the collapse of the uprising, the SS and police moved 416 Slovak Jews out of the Sered transit camp to Theresienstadt, as Soviet troops had already cut off the rail and road lines to Auschwitz. Another 1,031 Slovak Jews arrived in early April 1945, after Sered was evacuated. On March 8, 1945, between 1,070 and 1,150 Hungarian Jews who had been deported to the Austrian border the…

  • Jewish Life in Europe Before the Holocaust


    When the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, Jews were living in every country of Europe. A total of roughly nine million Jews lived in the countries that would be occupied by Germany during World War II. By the end of the war, two out of ever...

    Tags: antisemitism
    Jewish Life in Europe Before the Holocaust
  • Prisoners of the Camps


    Jews were the main targets of Nazi genocide. Learn about other individuals from a broad range of backgrounds who were imprisoned in the Nazi camp system.

    Prisoners of the Camps
  • 1940: Key Dates


    Explore a timeline of key events during 1940 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1940: Key Dates
  • Austria


    Learn about the German annexation of Austria, the establishment of Nazi camps, Kristallnacht, and deportations from Austria during the Holocaust.

  • Riga


    From 1918 to 1940, Riga was the capital of independent Latvia. Before World War II, about 40,000 Jews lived in Riga, representing slightly more than 10 percent of the city's population. The community had a well-developed network of Hebrew and Yiddish schools, as well as a lively Jewish cultural life. Jews were integrated into most aspects of life in Riga and even sat on the city council. In August 1940, the Soviet Union annexed Latvia, and Riga became the capital of the Latvian SSR. German forces occupied…

  • Einsatzgruppen and other SS and Police Units in the Soviet Union


    The Einsatzgruppen were German special duty squads, composed primarily of SS and police personnel. The commanders and officers were also members of the Security Police and the Security Service. The units were directly subordinate to the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt or RSHA) in Berlin and were to operate regionally in coordination with higher SS and police leaders. Ordered to follow the German army into the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen were dependent upon the army for supplies…

    Einsatzgruppen and other SS and Police Units in the Soviet Union
  • Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya


    Fighting began in North Africa on September 13, 1940, when Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's Italian 10th Army launched an attack from its bases in Libya on outnumbered British forces in western Egypt. A successful British counterattack initiated on December 9, 1940, led by General Sir Archibald Wavell, resulted in Italian defeat at Tobruk (Tubruq) in eastern Libya on January 22, 1941. On February 12, 1941, German General Erwin Rommel arrived in Libya to take command of troops sent to reinforce Germany's Italian…

    Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya
  • German Surrender

    Timeline Event

    May 7, 1945. On this date, German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to Allied forces in the west.

    German Surrender
  • Raoul Wallenberg Arrives in Budapest

    Timeline Event

    July 9, 1944. On this date, Raoul Wallenberg arrived in Budapest and began his wartime rescue efforts.

    Raoul Wallenberg Arrives in Budapest

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