Explore key dates in the history of the Theresienstadt camp/ghetto, which served multiple purposes during its existence from 1941-45.
A group of children assembled for deportation to Chelmno. During the roundup known as the "Gehsperre" Aktion, the elderly, infirm, and children were rounded up for deportation. Lodz, Poland, September 5-12, 1942.
A survivor in Wöbbelin. The soldier in the foreground of the photograph wears the insignia of the 8th Infantry Division. Along with the 82nd Airborne Division, on May 2, 1945, the 8th Infantry Division encountered the Wöbbelin camp. Germany, May 4-5, 1945.
A US Army soldier views the cemetery at Hadamar, where victims of the Nazi euthanasia program were buried in mass graves. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
Sergeant Alexander Drabik, the first American soldier to cross the bridge at Remagen, receiving the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroism. April 5, 1945. US Army Signal Corps photograph taken by J Malan Heslop.
Sack of wood flour (finely powdered wood or sawdust) used to make substitute bread. The official ration of this "bread" for Soviet prisoners of war was less than 5 ounces a day. Deblin, Poland, 1942 or 1943.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower visits with paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division just hours before their jump into German-occupied France (D-Day). June 5, 1944.
Soviet and Polish prisoners with disabilities stand in front of a tank of the 11th Armored Division, US Third Army. This photograph was taken at the Mauthausen concentration camp immediately after liberation. Austria, May 5–7, 1945.
A member of the Zoska battalion of the Armia Krajowa escorts two of 348 Jews liberated from the Gęsiówka concentration camp during the Warsaw Polish uprising. August 5, 1944.
The 11th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Mauthausen and Gusen in 1945.
The SS and police used the Slovak uprising as an opportunity to round up the last of the Slovak Jews. In late 1944, shortly after the collapse of the uprising, the SS and police moved 416 Slovak Jews out of the Sered transit camp to Theresienstadt, as Soviet troops had already cut off the rail and road lines to Auschwitz. Another 1,031 Slovak Jews arrived in early April 1945, after Sered was evacuated. On March 8, 1945, between 1,070 and 1,150 Hungarian Jews who had been deported to the Austrian border the…
Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and the radicalization of Nazi anti-Jewish policies triggered a mass exodus. Learn about the US and the refugee crisis of 1938–41.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.
Policemen stand outside the shuttered Eldorado nightclub, long frequented by Berlin's gay and lesbian community. The Nazi government quickly closed the establishment down and pasted pro-Nazi election posters on the building. Berlin, Germany, March 5, 1933. Learn more about this photograph.
View of the wall surrounding the cemetery of the Hadamar euthanasia killing center. Jagged pieces of glass were placed on the wall to discourage observers. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation of Hadamar. Germany, April 5, 1945.
Four days after the outbreak of World War II, Secretary of State Cordell Hull signs the Neutrality Proclamation (first signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt) at the State Department. Washington, DC, United States, September 5, 1939.
German children read an anti-Jewish propaganda book for children titled Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). The girl on the left holds a companion volume, the translated title of which is "Trust No Fox." Germany, ca. 1938. (Source record ID: E39 Nr .2381/5)
Some of the nursing staff of the "euthanasia" clinic at Hadamar stand outside of the institution after the arrival of US forces, April 5, 1945. Irmgard Huber, the head nurse of the clinic, is probably the person standing fifth from the right. © IWM EA 62183
As the Nazis conducted the...
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Sobibor killing center in the General Government, the German-administered territory of occupied Poland.
Auschwitz, Dachau, the Warsaw ghetto... These are names that resonate...
Hundreds of laws, decrees, guidelines, and regulations increasingly restricted the civil and human rights of Jews in Germany from 1933-39. Learn more.
Read an excerpt from Izak Lichtenstein’s 1947 testimony about the resistance movement in the Lachva (Lachwa) ghetto.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Bad Gastein DP camp.
(Bottom) View of fortifications built at Kalimovka to defend the advancing troops of the 4th Infantry Division of the Hungarian 2nd Army. In the lower right corner of the drawing, men prepare the grave of Jewish Labor Serviceman Nandor Klein, the first fatality of the company. The Hungarian caption reads: The death of our first hero, Nandor Klein, his grave, June 5, 1942." Klein was killed by a stray Soviet bullet on his way back to base. [Photograph #58013]
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