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  • Aron in Budapest, 1945

    Photo

    Aron in Budapest, 1945, while en route from Poland to Italy with Brihah, moving to Palestine. In Aron's words: "We got connected with the Brihah in Poland, got directions to go to Bratislava and on to Budapest. On our trip, we didn't know where we going from city to city, only our final destination." July 5, 1945, Budapest, Hungary.

    Aron in Budapest, 1945
  • Adolf Hitler greets Paul von Hindenburg

    Photo

    Recently appointed as German chancellor, Adolf Hitler greets President Paul von Hindenburg in Potsdam, Germany, on March 21, 1933. This pose was designed to project an image of Hitler as non-threatening to the established order. This particular image is from a popular postcard. The photo also appeared widely in both the German and international press. Hitler appears in civilian dress, bowing in deference to the heavily decorated von Hindenburg. The March 5, 1933, elections had conferred legitimacy on…

    Adolf Hitler greets Paul von Hindenburg
  • Two young brothers in the Kovno ghetto

    Photo

    Two young brothers, seated for a family photograph in the Kovno ghetto. One month later, they were deported to the Majdanek camp. Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944. Pictured are Avram (5 years) and Emanuel Rosenthal (2 years). Emanuel was born in the Kovno ghetto. The children, who were deported in the March 1944 "Children's Action," did not survive. Their uncle, Shraga Wainer, who had asked George Kadish to take this photograph, received a copy of it from the photographer after the war in the Landsberg…

    Two young brothers in the Kovno ghetto
  • Latvia

    Article

    Baltic Countries: Maps Latvia is one of the Baltic states. It is situated between Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south. Latvia was an independent republic between the end of World War I and 1940. In 1935, 94,000 Jews lived in Latvia, making up about 5 percent of the total population. Approximately half of Latvian Jewry lived in Riga, the capital. Latvian Jews were represented in all social and economic classes. There was a well-developed network of Jewish schools, with over 100…

    Latvia
  • Fire Oaths

    Article

    “Fire Oaths” were statements that declared why the works of certain authors were thrown into the flames during the 1933 burning of books under the Nazi regime.

    Fire Oaths
  • The 65th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 65th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Flossenbürg in 1945.

  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings

    Article

    American military tribunals presided over 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings
  • Hainichen

    Article

    Millions of people suffered and died in camps, ghettos, and other sites during the Holocaust....

    Tags: camps Germany
  • Tunisia Campaign

    Article

    The Tunisian campaign began with an Allied amphibious landing near Sfax in eastern Tunisia on January 5, 1943, and an attack on German positions at Gafsa in west central Tunisia on March 17, 1943. On February 4, 1943, the British Eighth Army crossed the border from Libya into Tunisia. Squeezed between US and British Commonwealth forces and cut off from his supply bases, German General Erwin Rommel attempted to stall the Allies with defensive operations. German and Italian troops managed to rout the US…

    Tunisia Campaign
  • Luxembourg

    Article

    German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. Germany occupied Luxembourg in May 1940. Estimates of the total number of Luxembourg Jews...

  • Page 5 of passport issued to Setty Sondheimer

    Document

    Page 5 of a passport issued to Setty Sondheimer by the German Consulate in Kovno on January 29, 1938. This page contains three visas: (1) visa for Kovno valid from August 27, 1940, until December 31, 1940 (2) a second visa for Kovno valid until June 30, 1941, and (3) first visa for Yokohama, Japan, valid from June 7, 1941, until June 30, 1942. Unable to emigrate from Japan, Setty remained there until she was able to emigrate to the United States in 1947. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and…

    Page 5 of passport issued to Setty Sondheimer
  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark

    Artifact

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks compiled by Bjorn Sibbern, a Danish policeman and resistance member, documenting the German occupation of Denmark. Bjorn's wife Tove was also active in the Danish resistance. After World War II, Bjorn and Tove moved to Canada and later settled in California, where Bjorn compiled five scrapbooks dedicated to the Sibbern's daughter, Lisa. The books are fully annotated in English and contain photographs, documents and three-dimensional artifacts documenting all…

    Page from volume 5 of a set of scrapbooks documenting the German occupation of Denmark
  • Wool Bedcover

    Artifact

    Following the Soviet occupation of Lithuania, the Lifszyc family began to search for ways to leave the country. David Lifszyc obtained a Curacao visa from the Dutch consulate. He also obtained an American visa because he was included on a list of distinguished rabbis submitted to the State Department by the Agudat Israel of America. After obtaining Soviet exit visas, the Lifszycs purchased tickets for Vladivostok on February 5, 1941. They started for Moscow, where they received Japanese transit visas. This…

    Wool Bedcover
  • European Jewish population distribution, ca. 1933

    Map

    Jews have lived in Europe for more than two thousand years. The American Jewish Yearbook placed the total Jewish population of Europe at about 9.5 million in 1933. This number represented more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population, which was estimated at 15.3 million. Most European Jews resided in eastern Europe, with about 5 1/2 million Jews living in Poland and the Soviet Union. Before the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, Europe had a dynamic and highly developed Jewish culture. In little more…

    European Jewish population distribution, ca. 1933
  • Auschwitz I camp, 1944

    Map

    Selected Features 1. Camp Commandant's House 2. Main Guard House 3. Camp Administrative Office 4. Gestapo 5. Reception Building/Prisoner Registration 6. Kitchen 7. Gas Chamber and Crematorium 8. Storage Buildings and Workshops 9. Storage of Confiscated Belongings 10. Gravel Pit: Execution Site 11. Camp Orchestra Site 12. "Black Wall" Execution Site 13. Block 11: Punishment Bunker 14. Block 10: Medical Experiments 15. Gallows 16. Block Commander's Barracks 17. SS Hospital

    Auschwitz I camp, 1944
  • Jewish Population of Europe in 1933: Population Data by Country

    Article

    Before the Nazis seized power in Germany in 1933, Europe had a richly diverse set of Jewish cultures. Learn more about the Jewish population of Europe.

    Jewish Population of Europe in 1933: Population Data by Country
  • The 26th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 26th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Gusen subcamp of Mauthausen in 1945.

  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #3: The Justice Case

    Article

    The Justice Case was Case #3 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #3: The Justice Case
  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #12: The High Command Case

    Article

    The High Command Case was Case #12 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #12: The High Command Case
  • Theresienstadt: SS and Police Structure

    Article

    Unlike camps in the concentration camp system, the Theresienstadt "camp-ghetto" was subordinate to the SS officials who ran the Prague branch of the Central Office for Jewish Emigration. This reflected Theresienstadt's special status as a transit station. SS First Lieutenant Siegfried Seidl, who was responsible for establishing and commanding the camp-ghetto, reported directly to the chief of that office, SS Captain Hans Günther. Günther in turn reported to Adolf Eichmann at the Reich Security Main…

  • Theresienstadt: Other Prisoners

    Article

    In addition to Jews from the Greater German Reich and the Protectorate, small groups of Jewish prisoners from other German-occupied countries were sent to Theresienstadt after June 1942. The largest group included 4,894 Dutch Jews and three French Jews transported from the Netherlands in 1943 and 1944, mostly from the Westerbork transit camp, but also from Bergen-Belsen. Many of the 297 Jews arriving in Theresienstadt from the Netherlands in 1943 were in fact German or Austrian Jews who had emigrated to…

  • Bernard Druskin

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Bernard Druskin.

    Bernard Druskin
  • Ben Kamm

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Ben Kamm.

    Ben Kamm

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