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  • Ossi Stojka

    ID Card

    Ossi was the youngest of six children born to Roma ("Gypsies") who traveled in a family wagon. His family was Roman Catholic. Their caravan spent winters in Vienna, Austria's capital, and summers in the Austrian countryside. The Stojkas belonged to a tribe called the Lowara Roma, who made their living as itinerant horse traders. Ossi's ancestors had lived in Austria for more than 200 years. 1933-39: Ossi was 2 years old when Germany annexed Austria in March 1938. The Stojka family wagon was parked for the…

    Ossi Stojka
  • Maria Sava Moise

    ID Card

    Maria was one of four children born to poor Roma ("Gypsy") parents in the capital of Moldavia in eastern Romania. The family lived in a mixed neighborhood that included Romanians and Roma. Maria grew up in a house with a yard where the family kept a pig and some chickens. Her father made a living by singing and by working at some of the many wineries that dotted the Moldavian countryside. 1933-39: Maria's parents couldn't afford to send her to school. To help make ends meet, Maria, her sister and older…

    Maria Sava Moise
  • Johanna Niedermeier Buchner

    ID Card

    Johanna was born in Vienna when it was still the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Her Christian family experienced the disruption resulting from the empire's collapse, as well as the instability of the Austrian republic. The depression of 1929 hit Vienna especially hard. In 1931 Johanna became a Jehovah's Witness. 1933-39: Johanna traveled constantly in and out of Austria distributing our Jehovah's Witness literature. In March 1938 Germany annexed Austria and her family was subjected to Nazi law;…

    Johanna Niedermeier Buchner
  • Bertha Adler

    ID Card

    Bertha was the second of three daughters born to Yiddish-speaking Jewish parents in a village in Czechoslovakia's easternmost province. Soon after Bertha was born, her parents moved the family to Liege, an industrial, largely Catholic city in Belgium that had many immigrants from eastern Europe. 1933-39: Bertha's parents sent her to a local elementary school, where most of her friends were Catholic. At school, Bertha spoke French. At home, she spoke Yiddish. Sometimes her parents spoke Hungarian to each…

    Tags: Auschwitz
    Bertha Adler
  • Zuzana Gruenberger

    ID Card

    Zuzana was the youngest of three children born to Hungarian-speaking Jewish parents in the city of Kosice. She was the baby of the family, and they called her Zuzi. Her father was a tailor whose workshop was in the Gruenbergers' apartment. 1933-39: In November 1938, when Zuzana was 5, Hungarian troops marched into Kosice and made it a part of Hungary. The Hungarians changed the name of the city to Kassa. The Hungarian government was friendly to Nazi Germany and introduced anti-Jewish laws in…

    Tags: Auschwitz
    Zuzana Gruenberger
  • Henry Maslowicz

    ID Card

    Henry's Jewish parents lived in a Polish town in which their families had lived for 150 years. The Jewish community enjoyed good relations with their Polish neighbors; the local Polish population refused to cooperate when the government encouraged a boycott of Jewish businesses during a wave of antisemitism that swept Poland in the mid-1930s. 1933-39: In the years before Henry was born, his father owned an iron and coal factory. The Germans occupied Wierzbnik on September 5, 1939. While some Jews fled,…

    Henry Maslowicz
  • Vita Rivkina

    ID Card

    Because both of her parents had died by the time Vita was 5 years old, she went to live with her cousins. At the age of 18, Vita married Iosif Rivkin, and the couple moved to Minsk where they raised three daughters--Hacia, Dora and Berta. 1933-39: By the early 1930s, the Rivkin family lived on Novomesnitskaya Street in central Minsk, near the Svisloch River. In the 1930s the girls attended Soviet state schools and were members of the Soviet youth organization, Young Pioneers. By the late 1930s Minsk was…

    Tags: Minsk
    Vita Rivkina
  • Polish hostages arrested during the "pacification" of Bydgoszcz

    Photo

    Polish hostages in the Old Market Square. Bydgoszcz, Poland, September 9–10, 1939. Just after the German invasion of Poland, armed groups of ethnic Germans in the city of Bydgoszcz staged an uprising against the local Polish garrison. This was put down by the next day, one day prior to the entrance of German troops in the city on September 5. A local command structure was quickly put into place by Major General Walter Braemer, and in response to continued attacks upon German personnel in the city,…

    Polish hostages arrested during the "pacification" of Bydgoszcz
  • Lublin/Majdanek Concentration Camp: Administration

    Article

    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deeme...

    Lublin/Majdanek Concentration Camp: Administration
  • Josef Nassy

    Article

    A Black expatriate artist living in Belgium upon the outbreak of WWII, Josef Nassy was held in German internment camps during the war. Learn about his experiences.

  • Nazi Rule

    Article

    Nazi Rule Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933, bringing an end to German democracy. Guided by racist and authoritarian ideas, the Nazis abolished basic freedoms and sought to create a "Volk" community. In theory, a "Volk" community united all social classes and regions of Germany behind Hitler. In reality, the Third Reich quickly became a police state, where individuals were subject to arbitrary arrest and imprisonment. In the first months of his chancellorship, Hitler…

    Nazi Rule
  • 1945: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during 1945 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, the Holocaust, and liberation and the aftermath of the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1945: Key Dates
  • Earl G. Harrison: Biography

    Article

    Earl G. Harrison, Commissioner for Immigration and Naturalization under FDR, is known for a report harshly criticizing the US and British treatment of Jewish DPs.

    Earl G. Harrison: Biography
  • Althammer

    Article

    The Germans established the Althammer camp in September 1944. It was a subcamp of Auschwitz. Read more about the camp's history and conditions there.

  • The Nuremberg Code

    Article

    Leading German physicians and administrators were put on trial for their role during the Holocaust. The resulting Nuremberg Code was a landmark document on medical ethics. Learn more

    The Nuremberg Code
  • Anne Frank Biography: Who was Anne Frank?

    Article

    Anne Frank is among the most well-known of the six million Jews who died in the Holocaust. Discover who Anne Frank was and what happened to her.

    Anne Frank Biography: Who was Anne Frank?
  • Reichstag Fire Decree

    Article

    The Reichstag Fire Decree of February 1933 restricted individual freedoms, and allowed Hitler's government to overrule state and local laws and overthrow state and local governments.

    Reichstag Fire Decree
  • The Nuremberg Race Laws

    Article

    The Nazi regime’s Nuremberg Race Laws of September 1935 made Jews legally different from their non-Jewish neighbors. The laws were the foundation for future antisemitic measures .

    The Nuremberg Race Laws
  • Dismissal letter from the Berlin transit authority

    Document

    A letter written by the Berlin transit authority (Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft) to Viktor Stern, informing him of his dismissal from his post with their agency as of September 20, 1933. This action was taken to comply with provisions of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. On April 7, the German government issued the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums), which excluded Jews and political opponents…

    Dismissal letter from the Berlin transit authority
  • Notice of Gregor Wohlfahrt's execution

    Document

    Authorities in Berlin, Germany, sent this notice to Barbara Wohlfahrt, informing her of her husband Gregor's execution on the morning of December 7, 1939. Although he was physically unfit to serve in the armed forces, the Nazis tried Wohlfahrt for his religious opposition to military service. As a Jehovah's Witness, Wohlfahrt believed that military service violated the biblical commandment not to kill. On November 8, 1939, a military court condemned Wohlfahrt to beheading, a sentence carried out one month…

    Notice of Gregor Wohlfahrt's execution
  • Sally Pitluk describes her removal from forced labor at Budy

    Oral History

    Sally Pitluk was born to Jewish parents in Płońsk, Poland in 1922. A few days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, Płońsk was occupied. Sally and her family lived in a ghetto from 1940-1942. In October of 1942, Sally was transported to Auschwitz, where she was tattooed and moved into the subcamp Budy for forced labor. She stayed in the Auschwitz camp complex until the beginning of 1945 when she and other prisoners were death marched to several different camps. She was liberated in 1945 and…

    Sally Pitluk describes her removal from forced labor at Budy
  • Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime

    Article

    Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.

    Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime
  • Mauthausen

    Article

    The Mauthausen concentration camp was established following the Nazi incorporation of Austria in 1938. Learn about the harsh conditions in the camp.

    Mauthausen
  • Herzogenbusch Main Camp (Vught)

    Article

    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Among them was the Herzogenbusch main camp (also known as Vught).

    Herzogenbusch Main Camp (Vught)
  • Hodonín U Kunštátu (Hodonín bei Kunstadt) (Roma camp)

    Article

    In March 1942, the Hodonin camp was classified as a camp for Roma. It was a transfer station during deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Learn about the camp and its history.

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