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A member of the German Order Police Battalion 101 stands next to a sign marking the entrance to the Lodz ghetto in German-occupied Poland, 1940–1941. The German text of the sign reads: "Announcement: In accordance with a police order of February 8, 1940, all Germans and Poles are forbidden entry into the ghetto area."
Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Learn about key events in the world and his life from 1928–1951.
Key dates associated with Hajj Amin al-Husayni, former Mufti of Jerusalem who participated in a pro-Axis coup in Iraq in 1941. Explore further
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of Nazi Germany during 1938.
German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. In Greece, over 80% of its prewar Jewish population was murdered.
German troops reached parts of Warsaw on September 8 and 9, 1939. During the German siege of Warsaw, the city sustained heavy damage from air attacks and artillery shelling. Warsaw surrendered on September 28. Here, German troops occupy Warsaw. This footage comes from "Tale of a City," a film made by a Polish underground film unit.
This election poster calls on Germans to vote in support of Hitler's hand-picked candidates to the Reichstag (the German parliament). The poster details Hitler's actions and reads, in part: 'In 8 months two and a quarter million Germans have work and bread again! Class warfare and its parties are eliminated! The Bolsheviks are smashed. Particularism is overcome! A Reich of order and cleanliness is established. One People. One Reich. One Leader. This is what Hitler has accomplished..."
Josef Stalin was the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party and the head of the Soviet state. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Portrait of Aron's family on his mother's side, taken when Aron's cousin moved to Israel in 1933-1934. Aron is seated second from left, bottom row. His mother, Miriam, is in the center row, second from right. Aron's father is behind her and to her right. Aron himself was 8 or 9 years old when this picture was taken in either May or June. At the time, Aron recalled, "I was thinking about going to summer camp." Slonim, Poland, 1933-1934.
Sisters Eva and Liane Münzer. They were placed in hiding with a devout Catholic couple. In 1944, Eva and Liane were reported to the police as a result of a fight between their rescuers. The husband denounced his wife and the two Jewish girls. The three were immediately arrested and sent to the Westerbork camp. On February 8, 1944, eight- and six-year-old Eva and Liane were deported to Auschwitz, where they were murdered. Photograph taken in The Hague, the Netherlands, 1940.
German Domination Until the winter of 1942-1943, the German army was victorious in an almost unbroken chain of battlefield successes. Europe lay under German domination. After a successful German advance in summer 1942, the battle for the city of Stalingrad in late 1942 proved a turning point. Soviet forces halted the German advance at Stalingrad on the Volga River and in the Caucasus. After this defeat, German troops were forced on the defensive, beginning the long retreat westward that was to end…
Learn about the fate of Sephardi Jewish communities during the Holocaust. On the eve of WWII, Europe's Sephardi Jews lived mostly in the Balkan countries.
“Fire Oaths” were statements that declared why the works of certain authors were thrown into the flames during the 1933 burning of books under the Nazi regime.
The RuSHA Case was Case #8 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1937.
German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. Germany occupied Luxembourg in May 1940. Estimates of the total number of Luxembourg Jews...
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1941 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
German police authorities issued this passport to Erna "Sara" Schlesinger on July 8, 1939, in Berlin. This first page of the passport illustrates the German laws that facilitated the identification of Jews in Germany. From 1938, German regulations required that Jewish women with a first name of "non-Jewish" origin use the middle name "Sara" on all official documents. Jewish men had to add the name "Israel". The letter "J" (standing for "Jude," that is, the word "Jew" in German) was stamped in red on the…
[This video is silent] Olympic athlete Jesse Owens won four medals at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany: 100-meter dash, gold200-meter dash, goldBroad (long) jump, gold4x100-meter relay, gold This footage shows Owens winning the 100-meter dash in a time of 10.3 seconds. Owens was one of the 18 African Americans (16 men and 2 women) who competed in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. These athletes brought home 14 medals: 8 gold; 4 silver; and 2 bronze.
Selected Features 1. Camp Commandant's House 2. Main Guard House 3. Camp Administrative Office 4. Gestapo 5. Reception Building/Prisoner Registration 6. Kitchen 7. Gas Chamber and Crematorium 8. Storage Buildings and Workshops 9. Storage of Confiscated Belongings 10. Gravel Pit: Execution Site 11. Camp Orchestra Site 12. "Black Wall" Execution Site 13. Block 11: Punishment Bunker 14. Block 10: Medical Experiments 15. Gallows 16. Block Commander's Barracks 17. SS Hospital
The Nazi rise to power brought an end to the Weimar Republic, a parliamentary democracy established in Germany after World War I. Following the appointment of Adolf Hitler as chancellor on January 30, 1933, the Nazi state (also referred to as the Third Reich) quickly became a regime in which Germans enjoyed no guaranteed basic rights. After a suspicious fire in the Reichstag (the German Parliament), on February 28, 1933, the government issued a decree which suspended constitutional civil rights and created…
The 1st Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two subcamps of Flossenbürg in 1945.
The 89th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Ohrdruf subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.
The 9th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Zwodau and Falkenau an der Eger, Flossenbürg subcamps, in 1945.
The IG Farben Case was Case #6 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
The Hostage Case was Case #7 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
The Krupp Case was Case #10 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Ben Kamm.
November 9, 1923. On this date, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party attempted to overthrow the Weimar Republic.
Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940. Read more about this invasion, the collaborator Vidkun Quisling, and the tragic fate of Norway’s Jews.
Raised by religious Jewish parents, Boleslaw and his older sister grew up in an apartment complex in a Jewish section of Warsaw. His father worked as an accountant. When Boleslaw was 8 years old, his mother died, and an aunt moved in to help raise him and his sister. Boleslaw loved electronics. When he was 10 years old, he succeeded in building a portable radio. 1933-39: The Germans attacked Warsaw on September 8, 1939. The bombing was relentless. Boleslaw's father wouldn't leave his ill relatives but…
Learn about the role of Theresienstadt in the deportation of German and Austrian Jews to killing sites and killing centers in the east.
Both inside and outside Germany, the term “Third Reich” was often used to describe the Nazi regime in Germany from January 30, 1933, to May 8, 1945. The Nazi rise to power marked the beginning of the Third Reich. It brought an end to the Weimar Republic, a parliamentary democracy established in defeated Germany after World War I. The last years of the Weimar Republic were plagued by political deadlock, increasing political street violence, and economic depression. These years were also marked by…
Hitler rose to power during a time of economic and political instability in Germany. Learn more about how and when Hitler came to power.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
Soviet military footage showing children who were liberated at Auschwitz by the Soviet army in January 1945.
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, was the impetus for the United States...
Nazi Germany occupied Hungary in March 1944. Learn about the experiences and fate of Jews in Budapest, Hungary's capital, before and after the occupation.
From 1918 to 1940, Riga was the capital of independent Latvia. Before World War II, about 40,000 Jews lived in Riga, representing slightly more than 10 percent of the city's population. The community had a well-developed network of Hebrew and Yiddish schools, as well as a lively Jewish cultural life. Jews were integrated into most aspects of life in Riga and even sat on the city council. In August 1940, the Soviet Union annexed Latvia, and Riga became the capital of the Latvian SSR. German forces occupied…
The Einsatzgruppen were German special duty squads, composed primarily of SS and police personnel. The commanders and officers were also members of the Security Police and the Security Service. The units were directly subordinate to the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt or RSHA) in Berlin and were to operate regionally in coordination with higher SS and police leaders. Ordered to follow the German army into the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen were dependent upon the army for supplies…
This US policy extended mat...
The 2nd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Leipzig-Schönefeld and Spergau/Zöschen in 1945.
The Battle of the Bulge was a failed German counter-offensive against the Allied armies. Learn more about the Battle of the Bulge and its impact on WWII.
The Ministries Case was Case #11 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
Recommended resources, topics, context, rationale, and critical thinking questions if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust.
The Hadamar Trial of October 1945 was the first mass atrocity trial held in the US occupation zone of Germany following World War II.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Karolina Dresler.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jutta Szmirgeld.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Trawniki in German-occupied Poland.
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