A member of the German Order Police Battalion 101 stands next to a sign marking the entrance to the Lodz ghetto in German-occupied Poland, 1940–1941. The German text of the sign reads: "Announcement: In accordance with a police order of February 8, 1940, all Germans and Poles are forbidden entry into the ghetto area."
Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Learn about key events in the world and his life from 1928–1951.
Key dates associated with Hajj Amin al-Husayni, former Mufti of Jerusalem who participated in a pro-Axis coup in Iraq in 1941. Explore further
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of Nazi Germany during 1938.
German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. In Greece, over 80% of its prewar Jewish population was murdered.
German troops reached parts of Warsaw on September 8 and 9, 1939. During the German siege of Warsaw, the city sustained heavy damage from air attacks and artillery shelling. Warsaw surrendered on September 28. Here, German troops occupy Warsaw. This footage comes from "Tale of a City," a film made by a Polish underground film unit.
This election poster calls on Germans to vote in support of Hitler's hand-picked candidates to the Reichstag (the German parliament). The poster details Hitler's actions and reads, in part: 'In 8 months two and a quarter million Germans have work and bread again! Class warfare and its parties are eliminated! The Bolsheviks are smashed. Particularism is overcome! A Reich of order and cleanliness is established. One People. One Reich. One Leader. This is what Hitler has accomplished..."
Josef Stalin was the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party and the head of the Soviet state. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Portrait of Aron's family on his mother's side, taken when Aron's cousin moved to Israel in 1933-1934. Aron is seated second from left, bottom row. His mother, Miriam, is in the center row, second from right. Aron's father is behind her and to her right. Aron himself was 8 or 9 years old when this picture was taken in either May or June. At the time, Aron recalled, "I was thinking about going to summer camp." Slonim, Poland, 1933-1934.
Sisters Eva and Liane Münzer. They were placed in hiding with a devout Catholic couple. In 1944, Eva and Liane were reported to the police as a result of a fight between their rescuers. The husband denounced his wife and the two Jewish girls. The three were immediately arrested and sent to the Westerbork camp. On February 8, 1944, eight- and six-year-old Eva and Liane were deported to Auschwitz, where they were murdered. Photograph taken in The Hague, the Netherlands, 1940.
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