An underground bunker, built by Jews in Warsaw in preparation for anti-Nazi resistance. This photograph shows cooking facilities in a bunker. Jews hid in bunkers while the Germans systematically destroyed the ghetto during the uprising. Warsaw, Poland, April 19–May 16, 1943.
British police stand among Jewish refugees on the decks of the refugee ship Exodus 1947 at Haifa port. British forces returned the refugees to displaced persons camps in Germany, dramatizing the plight of Holocaust survivors attempting to enter Palestine. July 19, 1947.
Eva was born to Jewish parents and grew up in a city on the border between Romania and Hungary. On March 19, 1944, the Germans occupied Hungary and Eva was soon forced into a ghetto. She was later deported to Auschwitz, where she was killed at the a...
Jeno Brieger was born to a Jewish family in northeastern Hungary. The Germans occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944. Jeno was forced into a ghetto and then deported to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen, where he was liberate...
Judith Gabriel Dichter was living in Vienna when Germany annexed Austria in 1938. A Jew, she was later deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto in Czechoslovakia. On September 19, 1942, she was deported to Maly Trostin...
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Poking Pine City DP camp.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
The Warsaw ghetto uprising was the largest, symbolically most important Jewish uprising, and first urban uprising in German-occupied Europe.
Adolf Eichmann was a key figure in implementing the “Final Solution,” the Nazi plan to kill Europe's Jews. Learn more through key dates and events.
Leading German physicians and administrators were put on trial for their role during the Holocaust. The resulting Nuremberg Code was a landmark document on medical ethics. Learn more
Explore key events in the history of the Belzec killing center in the Nazi camp system. It was constructed for the sole purpose of murdering Jews.
January 27, anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, is designated by the United Nations General Assembly as International Holocaust Remembrance Day (IHRD).
In 1942, Aron Derman and Lisa Nussbaum escaped deportation from the Grodno ghetto with the help of Tadek Soroka, a non-Jewish Pole. Aron and Lisa—aged 19 and 15—joined the armed Jewish resistance. As partisans, they f...
Photograph taken at the marriage of Esther Salsitz and her fiance. Esther's parents, Norman and Amalie, stand at left and right (respectively). June 19, 1977. With the end of World War II and collapse of the Nazi regime, survivors of the Holocaust faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. With little in the way of financial resources and few, if any, surviving family members, most eventually emigrated from Europe to start their lives again. Between 1945 and 1952, more than 80,000 Holocaust…
A US soldier stands among the corpses of prisoners exhumed from a mass grave in a ravine near Nammering. On April 19, 1945, a freight train with nearly 4,500 prisoners from Buchenwald pulled onto the railroad siding at Nammering. Hundreds of prisoners who had died on the train were buried in the mass grave along with the prisoners who were forced to carry the corpses to the ravine and were then shot. Germany, ca. May 6, 1945.
German soldiers arrest Jews during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Poland, May 1943. The Warsaw ghetto uprising began on April 19, 1943, after German troops and police entered the ghetto to deport its surviving inhabitants. By May 16, 1943, the Germans had crushed the uprising, deported surviving ghetto residents, and left the ghetto area in ruins.
Hannah Szenes on her first day in Palestine. Haifa, Palestine, September 19, 1939. Between 1943 and 1945, a group of Jewish men and women from Palestine who had volunteered to join the British army parachuted into German-occupied Europe. Their mission was to organize resistance to the Germans and aid in the rescue of Allied personnel. Hannah Szenes was among these volunteers. Szenes was captured in German-occupied Hungary and executed in Budapest on November 7, 1944, at the age of 23.
In 1941, the Nazis established Janowska camp. It was primarily used as a forced-labor and transit camp.
Helen Keller was an author, suffragist, and disability rights advocate. Her socialist and anti-war writing was burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Eschwege DP camp.
Learn how the "First Letter to all Judges" increased the pressure on German judges to give verdicts and sentences according to Nazi principles and ideology.
April 19, 1943. On this date, the Warsaw ghetto uprising began, the largest uprising by Jews during WWII and the first significant urban revolt against German occupation in Europe.
This photograph shows the refugee ship Pentcho, carrying over 500 passengers bound for Palestine, sailing in the Aegean Sea. It had departed from Bratislava on May 18, 1940. In October 1940, while the Pentcho was sailing in Italian territory, its boiler exploded. The passengers and crew were able to get ashore and offload their supplies before the ship finally sank. On October 18 and 19, Italian authorities picked up the refugees and took them to Rhodes. They stayed there for over a year in a…
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1934.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Abe Asner.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.