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  • Valises by the railcar in the Museum's Permanent Exhibition

    Artifact

    Many different kinds of railway cars were used for deportations. They varied in size and weight. The railway car on display in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Permanent Exhibition is of just one type used. The dimensions of the railway car in the Museum's exhibition are as follows: Total length 31 feet 6 inches (9.6 meters); interior space for deportees 26 feet 2 inches (8 meters). Total height 14 feet (4.3 meters) from the bottom of the wheel to the highest point of the car; interior space…

    Valises by the railcar in the Museum's Permanent Exhibition
  • Helena Husserlova with her daughter, Zdenka

    Photo

    In this portrait, Helena Husserlova, wearing a Jewish badge, poses with her daughter Zdenka who is holding a teddy bear. The photograph was taken shortly before they were deported to Theresienstadt. Zdenka was born in Prague on February 6, 1939. On October 10, 1941, when Zdenka was just two and a half years old, her father was deported to the Lodz ghetto. He died there almost a year later, on September 23, 1942. Following his deportation, Helena and Zdenka returned to Helena's hometown to live with…

    Helena Husserlova with her daughter, Zdenka
  • Portrait of Margot (Miriam) and Gerhard (Gad) Beck

    Photo

    Gerhard and Margot's mother came from a Protestant family. She met her future husband when she went to work in the telephone exchange at his company. She converted to Judaism in 1920. The couple married in 1920, and in 1923 had their twins Gerhard and Margot. Both Gerhard and Margot would become active in Jewish youth movements, and took on Hebrew names (Gad and Miriam).  On February 17, 1943, Gad was ordered to report to the temporary internment camp established at a former Jewish community building on…

    Portrait of Margot (Miriam) and Gerhard (Gad) Beck
  • Watercolor painting by Simon Jeruchim entitled "Memory of June 6, 1944"

    Photo

    Teenager Simon Jeruchim learned of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France (D-Day) on a shortwave radio. He painted a watercolor depiction of the bombing and burning of a town situated on a river. He titled the piece "Memory of June 6, 1944." Simon Jeruchim was born in Paris in 1929 to Samuel and Sonia (née Szpiro), Jewish émigrés from Poland. In July 1942, Simon’s parents were able to find hiding places for him and his siblings, but they were arrested and deported to…

    Watercolor painting by Simon Jeruchim entitled "Memory of June 6, 1944"
  • World War II in the Pacific

    Article

    The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, was the impetus for the United States...

    World War II in the Pacific
  • German Railways and the Holocaust

    Article

    The European rail network played a crucial role in the implementation of the Final Solution. Millions were deported by rail to killing centers and other sites.

    German Railways and the Holocaust
  • The 84th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 84th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two Neuengamme subcamps, Hannover-Ahlem and Salzwedel, in 1945.

  • The 90th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 90th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Flossenbürg concentration camp in 1945.

  • The 83rd Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 83rd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Langenstein subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.

  • The 63rd Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 63rd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating several of the Kaufering subcamps of Dachau in 1945.

  • The 82nd Airborne Division during World War II

    Article

    The 82nd Airborne Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Wöbbelin subcamp of Neuengamme in 1945.

    The 82nd Airborne Division during World War II
  • The 80th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 80th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Buchenwald and the Ebensee subcamp of Mauthausen in 1945.

  • The United States Army Signal Corps

    Article

    The US Army Signal Corps had a crucial role in documenting—in both film and photographs—the atrocities perpetrated during the Holocaust.

    The United States Army Signal Corps
  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #11: The Ministries Case

    Article

    The Ministries Case was Case #11 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #11: The Ministries Case
  • Frank Bleichman

    Article

    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against th...

  • Holocaust Deniers and Public Misinformation

    Article

    Holocaust denial and minimization or distortion of the facts of the Holocaust is a form of antisemitism. Holocaust deniers ignore the overwhelming evidence of the event and insist that the Holocaust is a myth, invented by the Allies, the Soviet communists, and the Jews for their own ends. According to the deniers' “logic” the Allies needed the “Holocaust myth” to justify their occupation of Germany in 1945 and the “harsh” persecution of Nazi defendants. Holocaust deniers also claim that Jews…

    Holocaust Deniers and Public Misinformation
  • Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya

    Article

    Fighting began in North Africa on September 13, 1940, when Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's Italian 10th Army launched an attack from its bases in Libya on outnumbered British forces in western Egypt. A successful British counterattack initiated on December 9, 1940, led by General Sir Archibald Wavell, resulted in Italian defeat at Tobruk (Tubruq) in eastern Libya on January 22, 1941. On February 12, 1941, German General Erwin Rommel arrived in Libya to take command of troops sent to reinforce Germany's Italian…

    Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya
  • Krakow Ghetto: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during the history of the Krakow ghetto in German-occupied Poland.

    Krakow Ghetto: Key Dates
  • Prisoners of the Camps

    Article

    Jews were the main targets of Nazi genocide. Learn about other individuals from a broad range of backgrounds who were imprisoned in the Nazi camp system.

    Prisoners of the Camps
  • Voyage of the St. Louis

    Article

    The voyage of the St. Louis, a German ocean liner, dramatically highlights the difficulties faced by many people trying to escape Nazi terror. Learn more.

    Voyage of the St. Louis
  • Plight of Jewish Children

    Article

    During the Holocaust, some children went into hiding to escape Nazi persecution. They faced constant fear, dilemmas, and danger.

    Plight of Jewish Children
  • St. Louis Sets Sail

    Timeline Event

    May 13, 1939. On this date, the German transatlantic liner St. Louis left Hamburg, Germany for Havana, Cuba.

    St. Louis Sets Sail
  • World War I and its Aftermath: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of World War I and its aftermath. Learn about the conflict and its divisive peace.

    World War I and its Aftermath: Key Dates
  • Börgermoor Camp

    Article

    Börgermoor was part of the Nazi regime’s early system of concentration camps. It was located in the Emsland region of Prussia.

  • World War II: In Depth

    Article

    Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.

    Tags: World War II
    World War II: In Depth
  • Berga-Elster ("Schwalbe V")

    Article

    At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.

  • The Holocaust in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry

    Article

    In March 1943, Bulgarian authorities transported the entire Jewish community of Monastir to a transit camp from which they were deported to Treblinka.

    The Holocaust in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry
  • Halle

    Article

     

  • 1941: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during 1941 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1941: Key Dates
  • 1943: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during 1943 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1943: Key Dates
  • Incitement to Genocide in International Law

    Article

    In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the world was faced with a challenge—how to seek justice for an almost unimaginable scale of criminal behavior, including the annihilation of European Jewry. Even as a vocabulary emerged to describe the atrocities that would come to be known as the Holocaust, legal experts sought to establish a new body of law to address the unprecedented crimes perpetrated by the Axis powers. A series of war crimes trials convened by the Allied powers and European governments…

    Incitement to Genocide in International Law
  • Martin Niemöller: Biography

    Article

    Protestant pastor Martin Niemöller emerged as an opponent of Adolf Hitler and was imprisoned in camps for 7 years. Learn about the complexities surrounding his beliefs.

  • Freiberg

    Article

    Learn about the Freiburg subcamp of Flossenbürg, including its establishment, prisoner population, and conditions there.

  • Letter home from an American soldier about the end of World War II in Europe

    Document

    Rudolph Daniel Sichel (b. 1915) left Germany in 1934 for England and then immigrated to the United States in 1936. His father, who had remained in Germany, was arrested during Kristallnacht, sent to Buchenwald for a couple of months, forced to sell his store at a loss, and immigrated to the United States with Rudolph's mother shortly after. Sichel joined the US Army in 1943, attending courses at the Military Intelligence Training Center at Camp Ritchie, MD. He landed on Utah Beach in July 1944 and was…

    Letter home from an American soldier about the end of World War II in Europe
  • Children's Aid Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants)

    Article

    During WWII, the Children’s Aid Society (OSE) operated 14 children's homes throughout France to save Jewish children from internment and deportation to killing centers.

    Children's Aid Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants)
  • Chaim Yelin

    Article

    Yiddish writer Chaim Yelin was a leader of the Kovno ghetto underground resistance movement again the Germans.

  • Janusz Korczak

    Article

    Janusz Korczak ran a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw. He and his staff stayed with the children even as German authorities deported them to their deaths at Treblinka in 1942.

    Janusz Korczak
  • Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)

    Article

    The Reich Security Main Office (RSHA), created by Heinrich Himmler, brutally coordinated and perpetrated many aspects of the Holocaust.

    Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)
  • Judith Margareth Konijn

    ID Card

    Judith was the younger of two children born to religious, middle-class Jewish parents. Judith's mother, Clara, was Sephardic, a descendant of Jews who had been expelled from Spain in 1492. Her father, Lodewijk, was a traveling representative for a firm based in Amsterdam. The family lived in an apartment in a new section of Amsterdam on the southern outskirts. 1933-39: Judith attended grade school with her cousin Hetty who was the same age. Judith loved to study. Her mother taught piano to students who…

    Tags: Amsterdam
    Judith Margareth Konijn
  • Thomas Pfeffer

    ID Card

    Thomas' father, Heinz, was a German-Jewish refugee who had married Henriette De Leeuw, a Dutch-Jewish woman. Frightened by the Nazi dictatorship and the murder of Heinz's uncle in a concentration camp, they immigrated to the Netherlands when Henriette was nine months pregnant with Thomas' older brother. They settled in Amsterdam. 1933-39: Thomas, also known as Tommy, was born 18 months after his older brother, Jan-Peter. In 1939 the parents and brother of Tommy's father joined them in the Netherlands as…

    Thomas Pfeffer
  • Mirjana Babunovic Dimitrijevic

    ID Card

    Mirjana was the second of three children born to well-to-do Serbian parents in the capital of Bosnia, in central Yugoslavia. Her father was a successful businessman and prominent Serbian nationalist. Like her parents, Mirjana was baptized in the Serbian Orthodox faith. Mirjana attended elementary school in the multi-ethnic city of Sarajevo. 1933-39: While in secondary school, Mirjana studied foreign languages and toured western Europe. In 1938 she graduated. That fall she enrolled as a student of English…

    Mirjana Babunovic Dimitrijevic
  • Cedomir Milan Sorak

    ID Card

    Cedomir was the oldest of five children born to Serbian Orthodox parents. The Soraks lived in the multi-ethnic city of Sarajevo, the capital of the region of Bosnia. Cedomir's father, Milan, was an engineer employed by the Yugoslav state railways, and his Hungarian-born mother, Andjelija, was a housewife. 1933-39: The Sorak family moved to Zagreb after Cedomir's father was promoted to the position of assistant director of the rail system in the region of Croatia. He graduated from secondary school in 1938…

    Tags: Yugoslavia
    Cedomir Milan Sorak
  • Wladyslaw Piotrowski

    ID Card

    Wladyslaw was born to Catholic parents in Russian-occupied Poland. He grew up in Plock, a town located in a rural area north of Warsaw. Wladyslaw married in 1918 and he and his wife, Marie, raised four children. 1933-39: Wladyslaw worked as a bookkeeper, and then as an accountant for a local farmers' cooperative. In 1931 he was sent to the town of Wyszogrod to close a failing branch of the farmers cooperative. A year later, he organized a new, successful cooperative in Wyszogrod with local farmers and…

    Wladyslaw Piotrowski
  • Vladan Popovic

    ID Card

    Vladan was the oldest of five children born to well-to-do Serbian Orthodox parents in the village of Gnjilane in the Serbian part of Yugoslavia. Vladan went to Montpelier, France, where he earned a law degree from the university. When Vladan returned to Yugoslavia, he worked as an attorney in Belgrade. He married and had one daughter. 1933-39: Vladan's wife died in 1933, and his 4-year-old daughter went to live with her maternal great-aunt. Meanwhile, Vladan had expanded his law practice and was…

    Vladan Popovic
  • Margit Nemeth Fekete

    ID Card

    Margit was born to a Jewish family in the city of Szentes. In 1919 she married and had a son, Gyorgy. When Gyorgy was still a baby, Margit divorced, but she remarried several years later. Her new husband, Vilmos Fekete, worked as a manager in a large electric company in Ujpest, a suburb of Budapest. Margit settled there and her son stayed in Szentes with his grandparents. 1933-39: Margit and her son saw each other as often as possible. Margit would travel by bus to Szentes to spend the Jewish holidays…

    Margit Nemeth Fekete
  • Polish hostages arrested during the "pacification" of Bydgoszcz

    Photo

    Polish hostages in the Old Market Square. Bydgoszcz, Poland, September 9–10, 1939. Just after the German invasion of Poland, armed groups of ethnic Germans in the city of Bydgoszcz staged an uprising against the local Polish garrison. This was put down by the next day, one day prior to the entrance of German troops in the city on September 5. A local command structure was quickly put into place by Major General Walter Braemer, and in response to continued attacks upon German personnel in the city,…

    Polish hostages arrested during the "pacification" of Bydgoszcz
  • Germans search Jews for weapons

    Photo

    German personnel on Grzybowska Street arrest and search Jewish men who supposedly hid weapons prior to the German occupation of Warsaw.  Warsaw, Poland, October-December 1939. This is one of a series of photos taken by Arthur Grimm, an SS propaganda company photographer, documenting the investigative work of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) in occupied Warsaw for the Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung. Although only some of the photos were published, it is likely that the incidents depicted in the BIZ were staged…

    Germans search Jews for weapons
  • Return to Europe of the St. Louis

    Article

    In May 1939, the St. Louis set sail from Germany to Cuba. Most of the passengers, fleeing Nazi Germany, were denied entry. Learn more about their fates.

    Return to Europe of the St. Louis
  • History of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    Article

    The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum opened in April 1993. Explore the history of the nation's memorial to the millions murdered during the Holocaust.

    History of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  • Testimony on the Escape from the Mir Ghetto by Eliezer Breslin

    Article

    A Project of the Miles Lerman Center Summary extract from the testimony of Eliezer Breslin given to detectives from New Scotland Yard in Israel on May 22, 1995, during the investigation into Semion Serafinowicz, the former chief of the Belorussian police in Mir. The first ghetto was established three weeks after the German invasion and consisted only of a few streets, Zavalne Street and Visoka Street. It was not exactly a ghetto; it wasn't enclosed by a barbed wire fence. In this area the houses were…

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