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Amalie Petranka (later Salsitz) at 22 years of age. She gave this photo to Norman Salsitz shortly after they met. Photograph taken in Stanislawow, Poland, on October 10, 1939.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Abe Asner.
At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.
Learn about the establishment of and conditions in Melk, a subcamp of the Mauthausen camp system in Austria.
Learn more about Nazi mobile killing squads (Einsatzgruppen) killing activities in the Soviet Union during World War II.
The Wannsee Conference was a high-level meeting of Nazi Party and German State officials to coordinate “the Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Learn more.
The Jewish children of Lodz suffered harsh conditions after the German invasion of Poland. Read excerpts from diaries where they recorded their experiences.
Nazi officials implemented the Jewish badge as a key element in their plan to persecute and eventually destroy the Jewish population of Europe. Learn more
Under the protection of the Bielski partisan group, founded by brothers Tuvia, Asael, and Zus, over 1,200 Jews survived after fleeing into forests in western Belarus.
Benjamin, called "Benno" by his family and friends, grew up in a religious Jewish household in Amsterdam. Benno's father, a successful diamond manufacturer, was president of the Amsterdam Jewish community. Benno had two younger sisters and enjoyed collecting stamps. 1933-39: After he obtained some work experience in a department store, Benno joined his father in the diamond business. Benno adhered strictly to Jewish law. He loved tennis and skiing, and in 1938, while skiing in Switzerland, he met a girl…
Rachel, born Rachel Karpus, was born to a Jewish family in the northeastern Polish city of Vilna. At the age of 16, Rachel married Reuven Galperin, a typesetter for a Jewish newspaper in the city, and the couple subsequently had 16 children. Only nine of the children lived to the 1930s. 1933-39: In addition to caring for her children, Rachel also operated a small grocery on Nowigorod Street. In 1938 Rachel's husband died. One year later, on September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland and 17 days after that…
Betje and her sister Saartje were born to Jewish parents in the town of Zwolle in the Netherlands' north central province of Overijssel. Betje was known affectionately as "Bep" to her friends. The Jakobs family owned a successful sporting goods store. 1933-39: As a young girl, Betje enjoyed playing the piano, knitting and tennis. At age 16, while still in secondary school, she began to date Maurits Wijnberg, a boy two years her senior, whose family owned Zwolle's Hotel Wijnberg. 1940-42: The Germans…
October 15, 1941. On this date, Walter Stahlecker submitted a report on the killing of Jewish civilians in the northwestern Soviet Union.
Learn about the establishment of the Theresienstadt camp/ghetto, which served multiple purposes from 1941-45 and had an important propaganda function for the Germans.
Learn about the “Tehran Children,” a group of Polish-Jewish refugees. In 1942, they were resettled from the Soviet Union to Palestine via Iran.
Under the Vichy regime, the Les Milles camp held foreign Jews before emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jutta Szmirgeld.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Sara Rachela Plagier.
Young people's diaries capture some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of David Sierakowiak.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1945 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, the Holocaust, and liberation and the aftermath of the Holocaust.
The Uckermark camp was one of the so-called youth protection camps that the Nazi regime established for young people who were alleged to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals.
In March 1943, Bulgarian authorities transported the entire Jewish community of Monastir to a transit camp from which they were deported to Treblinka.
In 1941, Romania occupied Odessa, Ukraine. Learn more about the subsequent reprisal, ghettoization, and deportation during World War II.
The Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages. Read more about the indoctrination of youth.
Decrees that ordered Jews to wear special badges for purposes of identification existed before the Nazi era. Learn about this history.
Learn more about the Nazi exploitation of forced labor during World War II.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1942 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
A group of 1,500 Armenian children at a refugee camp of the Near East Relief organization in Alexandroupolis. Greece, 1921–22.
Containers of Zyklon B poison gas pellets found at the Majdanek camp after liberation. Poland, after July 22, 1944.
The defendants listen as the prosecution begins introducing documents at the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. November 22, 1945.
Charred remains of corpses near crematoria in the Majdanek camp, after liberation. Poland, after July 22, 1944.
View of watchtower and fence at the Majdanek camp, after liberation. Poland, after July 22, 1944.
After the occupation of Odessa, Ukrainian Jews wait to register. Odessa, Soviet Union, October 22, 1941.
Allen Small (left). Allen became a partisan fighter at age 14.
Anne Frank, age twelve, at her school desk. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1941.
Blood libels were false allegations that Jews used the blood of non-Jewish children in rituals. Nazi propagandists used this false charge in their antisemitic propaganda.
Jan Karski and General Colin Powell meet during the opening ceremonies of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC, April 22, 1993.
Christoph Probst, a member of the White Rose student opposition group. Probst, arrested and condemned to death by the People's Court, was executed on February 22, 1943.
Aerial view of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice, where the International Military Tribunal tried 22 leading German officials for war crimes. Nuremberg, Germany, November 1945.
Photograph taken during the wedding of Ibby Neuman and Max Mandel at the Bad Reichenhall displaced persons' camp. Germany, February 22, 1948.
HIAS immigration certificate issued to Manius Notowicz in Munich, Germany. The document states that Notowicz will travel on the Marine Flasher on February 22, 1947, to New York City.
GIs keep low inside a landing craft during an assault across the Rhine at Oberwesel, Germany. March 22, 1945. US Army Signal Corps photograph.
A column of refugees in the Soviet Union, following the German invasion of Soviet territory on June 22, 1941. Soviet Union, between 1941 and 1944.
Soviet refugees sit around a fire in a makeshift camp, following the German invasion of Soviet territory on June 22, 1941. Soviet Union, between 1941 and 1944.
German police round up Jews in the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam, blockaded following anti-Nazi violence. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, February 22, 1941.
German Jews trying to emigrate to Palestine form long lines in front of the Palestine and Orient Travel Agency. Berlin, Germany, January 22, 1939.
The War Refugee Board was formed in 1944 by executive order under President Roosevelt. It was tasked with the rescue and relief of victims of Nazi oppression.
Some individuals and groups in Germany attempted to resist Nazism, despite the risk of being caught and facing punishment. Learn more about their efforts.
The Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were developed as Nazi Party youth groups to indoctrinate children and youth in Nazi ideology and policy.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.