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  • Lois Gunden and staff of the Ville St. Christophe refugee children’s home

    Photo

    Lois Gunden (center right) with other members of the Ville St. Christophe staff in Canet-Plage, France.  At the age of 26, Lois Gunden, a Mennonite and French teacher from Goshen, Indiana, sailed to Europe to head the Ville St. Christophe refugee children’s home in Canet-Plage, France. She had not been involved with overseas relief work before, and had never been to Europe. But she spoke French, and the Mennonite Central Committee needed someone willing to place herself in danger to help others.…

    Lois Gunden and staff of the Ville St. Christophe refugee children’s home
  • Jewish parachutist Hannah Szenes with her brother

    Photo

    Jewish parachutist Hannah Szenes with her brother, before leaving for a rescue mission. Palestine, March 1944. Between 1943 and 1945, a group of Jewish men and women from Palestine who had volunteered to join the British army parachuted into German-occupied Europe. Their mission was to organize resistance to the Germans and aid in the rescue of Allied personnel. Hannah Szenes was among these volunteers.  Szenes was captured in German-occupied Hungary and executed in Budapest on November 7,…

    Jewish parachutist Hannah Szenes with her brother
  • Suse Grunbaum at age one

    Photo

    Photograph taken in December 1932 of Suse Grunbaum at age one. Soon after Hitler's 1933 seizure of power in Germany, two-year-old Suse and her parents fled to the Netherlands and settled in the town of Dinxperlo. In 1943, Jews in German-occupied Dinxperlo were ordered to assemble for deportation. Hearing of these plans, the Grünbaums went into hiding, finding refuge with Dutch farmers. The Hartemink family hid Suse and her mother for two years in their barn, first under the floorboards, then in a…

    Suse Grunbaum at age one
  • Hannah Szenes

    Photo

    Hannah Szenes on her first day in Palestine. Haifa, Palestine, September 19, 1939. Between 1943 and 1945, a group of Jewish men and women from Palestine who had volunteered to join the British army parachuted into German-occupied Europe. Their mission was to organize resistance to the Germans and aid in the rescue of Allied personnel. Hannah Szenes was among these volunteers.  Szenes was captured in German-occupied Hungary and executed in Budapest on November 7, 1944, at the age of 23. 

    Hannah Szenes
  • Chuna Grynbaum: Maps

    Media Essay

    Chuna Grynbaum was born to Jewish parents in Starachowice, Poland in 1928. When he was 13 years old, Chuna was sent to forced labor at a munitions factory. In 1943, he attempted to escape with his sister, Faiga. Faiga...

  • Jozef Wilk: Maps

    Media Essay

    Born to Roman Catholic parents in Poland, Jozef Wilk was a teenager when Germany invaded in 1939. Jozef left for Warsaw and joined a special unit of the Polish resistance. During the 1943 Warsaw ghetto uprising, Joz...

  • Mira Shelub

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Mira Shelub.

    Mira Shelub
  • Jewish Parachutists from Palestine

    Article

    Learn about a group of Jewish men and women from Palestine who parachuted into German-occupied Europe to organize resistance and aid in the rescue of Allied personnel

    Jewish Parachutists from Palestine
  • Hidden Children: Expressions

    Article

    Jewish children in hiding during the Holocaust created writing, art, diaries, and more. Read about the surviving documentation of their experiences.

    Hidden Children: Expressions
  • Reversal of Fortune: Robert Kempner

    Article

    Lawyer Robert Kempner was expelled from Germany in 1935. After WWII, he would return to serve as assistant US chief counsel during the IMT at Nuremberg.

    Reversal of Fortune: Robert Kempner
  • James Ingo Freed: Architect of the Museum

    Article

    Architect James Ingo Freed designed the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    James Ingo Freed: Architect of the Museum
  • Rut Berlinska

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Rut Berlinska.

  • Miriam Goldberg

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Miriam Goldberg.

  • Israel Unikowski

    Article

    Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Israel Unikowski.

  • Morris Hillquit

    Article

    Morris Hillquit was a prominent theoretician of the socialist movement in the United States. His work was burned in the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.

    Morris Hillquit
  • Lindenfels Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Lindenfels DP camp.

    Lindenfels Displaced Persons Camp
  • Yitzhak Gitterman

    Article

    Yitzhak Gitterman was a director of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee in Poland and a member of the underground Jewish Fighting Organization.

    Yitzhak Gitterman
  • Soviet Secret Police massacre in Lvov

    Film

    The Soviet Union occupied Lvov in September 1939, according to secret provisions of the German-Soviet Pact. Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. After a week of bitter fighting, German forces occupied Lvov. They discovered that the Soviet Secret Police had massacred thousands of prisoners, mostly Ukrainian nationalists, before fleeing from the city. This footage shows the removal of the bodies of some of those massacred. The Germans claimed that the city's Jewish population had supported the…

    Soviet Secret Police massacre in Lvov
  • Jews from Macedonia before deportation

    Photo

    Jews from Bulgarian-occupied Macedonia who were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje before deportation to the Treblinka killing center. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The…

    Jews from Macedonia before deportation
  • Macedonian Jews leave the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje for the deportation trains

    Photo

    Macedonian Jews leave the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje for the deportation trains. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there between eleven and eighteen days, before being…

    Macedonian Jews leave the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje for the deportation trains
  • A family of Macedonian Jews before deportation

    Photo

    A family of Macedonian Jews in the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp in Skopje before deportation. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there between eleven and eighteen days,…

    A family of Macedonian Jews before deportation
  • Macedonian Jews prepare to board a deportation train in Skopje

    Photo

    Macedonian Jews prepare to board a deportation train in Skopje. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there between eleven and eighteen days, before being deported by train in three transports…

    Macedonian Jews prepare to board a deportation train in Skopje
  • Jews from Macedonia before deportation to the Treblinka killing center

    Photo

    Jews from Macedonia who were rounded up and assembled in the Tobacco Monopoly transit camp before deportation to the Treblinka killing center. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there…

    Jews from Macedonia before deportation to the Treblinka killing center
  • Jews outside the Monopol tobacco factory transit camp

    Photo

    Jews outside the Monopol tobacco factory, used as a transit camp by Bulgarian authorities during deportations from Macedonia to the Treblinka killing center in German-occupied Poland. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp.…

    Jews outside the Monopol tobacco factory transit camp
  • Jews prepare soup outside the Monopol tobacco factory transit camp

    Photo

    Jews prepare soup outside the Monopol tobacco factory, used as a transit camp by Bulgarian authorities during deportations of Jews from Macedonia. Skopje, Yugoslavia, March 1943. The Jews of Bulgarian-occupied Thrace and Macedonia were deported in March 1943. On March 11, 1943, over 7,000 Macedonian Jews from Skopje, Bitola, and Stip were rounded up and assembled at the Tobacco Monopoly in Skopje, whose several buildings had been hastily converted into a transit camp. The Macedonian Jews were kept there…

    Jews prepare soup outside the Monopol tobacco factory transit camp
  • Sachsenhausen: Key Dates

    Article

    Key dates in the history of the Sachsenhausen camp in the Nazi camp system, from its establishment in 1936 to the postwar trial of camp staff in 1947.

    Sachsenhausen: Key Dates
  • Sachsenhausen: Liberation and Postwar Trials

    Article

    Learn about the death march of prisoners from the Sachsenhausen camp, liberation of the remaining prisoners, and postwar trials of camp staff.

    Sachsenhausen: Liberation and Postwar Trials
  • Sam Gruber (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Sam Gruber.

    Sam Gruber (Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation biography)
  • Amsterdam

    Article

    Learn about Amsterdam during World War II and the Holocaust, including deportations of Jews to concentration camps and killing centers.

    Amsterdam
  • Norway

    Article

    Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940. Read more about this invasion, the collaborator Vidkun Quisling, and the tragic fate of Norway’s Jews.

    Norway
  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #5: The Flick Case

    Article

    The Flick Case was Case #5 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #5: The Flick Case
  • Nazi Persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War

    Article

    Nazi Germany waged a war of annihilation against the Soviet Union. This included brutally treating Soviet POWs and murdering them on a mass scale. Learn more.

    Nazi Persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War
  • Pogrom in Lvov

    Film

    The Soviet Union occupied Lvov in September 1939, according to secret provisions of the German-Soviet Pact. Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, occupying Lvov within a week. The Germans claimed that the city's Jewish population had supported the Soviets. Ukrainian mobs went on a rampage against Jews. They stripped and beat Jewish women and men in the streets of Lvov. Ukrainian partisans supported by German authorities killed about 4,000 Jews in Lvov during this pogrom. US forces discovered…

    Pogrom in Lvov
  • Danzig

    Article

    Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Versailles treaty, among it was much resented loss of the city of Danzig after WWI.

    Danzig
  • Euthanasia Program and Aktion T4

    Article

    The Nazi Euthanasia Program, codenamed Aktion "T4," was the systematic murder of institutionalized people with disabilities. Read about Nazi “euthanasia.”

    Euthanasia Program and Aktion T4
  • Jazz musician Valaida Snow

    Film

    In the 1930s, famous Tennessee jazz musician Valaida Snow was known as “Little Louis” because her talent with a trumpet rivaled the legendary Louis Armstrong. She performed around the world, but it was a tour of Europe that would haunt her for the rest of her life.  While in German-occupied Denmark, Snow is said to have been arrested and imprisoned in Copenhagen. It is still unclear why she was arrested or what was done to her while she was held, but after her release in a May 1942 prisoner exchange,…

    Jazz musician Valaida Snow
  • Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"

    Artifact

    Identifying armband worn by Pao Chia member. In 1942 the Japanese in Shanghai established self-policing units, Pao Chia, composed of all men, foreigners and Chinese, aged 20 to 45. In the designated area, male refugees served several hours weekly in rotating shifts as guards for buildings and ghetto entrances where they examined passes. Despite the Japanese use of the Pao Chia to help police the ghetto, it was relatively easy to leave the "designated area," which was not walled in. Individuals who did so,…

    Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"
  • Einsatzgruppen massacres in eastern Europe (enlargement)

    Map

    Einsatzgruppen were German special duty units, composed primarily of SS and police personnel, assigned to kill Jews as part of the Nazi program to kill the Jews of Europe. During the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the mobile killing squads followed the German army as it advanced deep into Soviet territory, and carried out mass-murder operations. Wherever the Einsatzgruppen went they shot Jewish men, women, and children, without regard for age or gender. Einsatzgruppen killed more than a…

    Einsatzgruppen massacres in eastern Europe (enlargement)
  • Tuvia Bielski

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Tuvia Bielski.

    Tuvia Bielski
  • Sara Fortis

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Sara Fortis.

    Sara Fortis
  • Meir Porges

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Meir Porges.

    Meir Porges
  • Alexander White

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Alexander White.

    Alexander White
  • Lion Feuchtwanger

    Article

    Lion Feuchtwanger was a bestselling German Jewish author who was persecuted under the Nazi regime. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933.

    Lion Feuchtwanger
  • Karl Marx

    Article

    Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.

    Karl Marx
  • Emil Ludwig

    Article

    Emil Ludwig was a liberal journalist and popular biographer whose works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

  • Nazi Imperialism: An Overview

    Article

    The Nazis pursued the imperialist concept of Lebensraum (living space) as they conquered eastern Europe. Read more about the deadly consequences of Nazi imperialism.

    Nazi Imperialism: An Overview
  • Theresienstadt: Other Prisoners

    Article

    Learn more about the fate of Jewish prisoners that were deported to Theresienstadt from places other than the Greater German Reich or the Protectorate.

    Theresienstadt: Other Prisoners
  • Salonika

    Article

    Salonika, Greece was invaded and occupied by the Nazis in 1941. Learn more about the fate of the Jews in Salonika during World War II.

    Salonika
  • 1933: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1933.

    Tags: key dates
    1933: Key Dates
  • World War II in Europe

    Article

    Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about WWII and genocide in Europe.

    World War II in Europe

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