A newspaper advertisement for the Damenklub Violetta, a Berlin club frequented by lesbians, 1928. Before the Nazis came to power in 1933, lesbian communities and networks flourished in Germany.
Survivors in a barracks at the Wöbbelin concentration camp. Germany, May 4–5, 1945.
A Syrian girl looks over the Domiz refugee camp outside Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan. Sepember 5, 2015.
Mauthausen concentration camp inmates with American troops after the liberation of the camp.
Portrait of Secretary of State Cordell Hull signing President Franklin D. Roosevelt's neutrality proclamation. September 5, 1939.
Corpses of victims of the Gunskirchen subcamp of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, after May 5, 1945.
Purim portrait of a kindergarten class at the Reali Hebrew gymnasium. Kovno, Lithuania, March 5, 1939.
Piles of corpses, soon after the liberation of the Mauthausen camp. Austria, after May 5, 1945.
View of the Mauthausen concentration camp. This photograph was taken after the liberation of the camp. Austria, May 5-30, 1945.
Refugee boys from Syria play on old tents in the Domiz refugee camp outside Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan. September 5, 2015.
The crematoria at the Gusen camp, a subcamp of Mauthausen concentration camp, still held human remains after liberation. Austria, May 5, 1945.
Survivors in Wöbbelin board trucks for evacuation from the camp to an American field hospital for medical attention. Germany, May 4–5, 1945.
A US Army soldier views the bodies of prisoners piled on top of one another in the doorway of a barracks in Wöbbelin. Germany, May 4–5, 1945.
An American soldier stands guard in front of the Hadamar Institute. The photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
View of one of the mass graves at the Hadamar Institute. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
The IG Farben defendants hear the indictments against them before the start of the trial, case #6 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. May 5, 1947.
Adolf Hitler (lower right) gives Nazi salute as he reviews victorious German troops. Warsaw, Poland, October 5, 1939.
An official visit of Heinrich Himmler to the Lodz ghetto. Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski, head of the Jewish council, greets the Nazi officials. Lodz, Poland, June 5, 1941.
A pile of corpses at the Russian Camp (Hospital Camp) section of the Mauthausen concentration camp after liberation. Mauthausen, Austria, May 5-15, 1945.
Corpses found by US soldiers after the liberation of the Gunskirchen camp, a subcamp of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, after May 5, 1945.
Barracks for prisoners at the Flossenbürg concentration camp, seen here after liberation of the camp by US forces. Flossenbürg, Germany, May 5, 1945.
Sleeping quarters in Wöbbelin, a subcamp of Neuengamme concentration camp. This photograph was taken upon the liberation of the camp by US forces. Germany, May 5, 1945.
The Decree against Public Enemies was a key step in the process by which the Nazi leadership moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship.
Explore key dates in the history of the Theresienstadt camp/ghetto, which served multiple purposes during its existence from 1941-45.
Explore a timeline of key events during the history of the Treblinka killing center in German-occupied Poland.
The 1944 Warsaw uprising was the single largest military effort undertaken by resistance forces to oppose German occupation during World War II.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1942 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
Sack of wood flour (finely powdered wood or sawdust) used to make substitute bread. The official ration of this "bread" for Soviet prisoners of war was less than 5 ounces a day. Deblin, Poland, 1942 or 1943.
A member of the Zoska battalion of the Armia Krajowa escorts two of 348 Jews liberated from the Gęsiówka concentration camp during the Warsaw Polish uprising. August 5, 1944.
A group of children assembled for deportation to Chelmno. During the roundup known as the "Gehsperre" Aktion, the elderly, infirm, and children were rounded up for deportation. Lodz, Poland, September 5-12, 1942.
A survivor in Wöbbelin. The soldier in the foreground of the photograph wears the insignia of the 8th Infantry Division. Along with the 82nd Airborne Division, on May 2, 1945, the 8th Infantry Division encountered the Wöbbelin camp. Germany, May 4-5, 1945.
A US Army soldier views the cemetery at Hadamar, where victims of the Nazi euthanasia program were buried in mass graves. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation. Germany, April 5, 1945.
Sergeant Alexander Drabik, the first American soldier to cross the bridge at Remagen, receiving the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroism. April 5, 1945. US Army Signal Corps photograph taken by J Malan Heslop.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower visits with paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division just hours before their jump into German-occupied France (D-Day). June 5, 1944.
Soviet and Polish prisoners with disabilities stand in front of a tank of the 11th Armored Division, US Third Army. This photograph was taken at the Mauthausen concentration camp immediately after liberation. Austria, May 5–7, 1945.
The Theresienstadt camp-ghetto existed from 1941 to 1945. Learn about its final weeks, liberation, and the postwar trials of SS commandants and other staff.
The 11th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Mauthausen and Gusen in 1945.
Four days after the outbreak of World War II, Secretary of State Cordell Hull signs the Neutrality Proclamation (first signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt) at the State Department. Washington, DC, United States, September 5, 1939.
Some of the nursing staff of the "euthanasia" clinic at Hadamar stand outside of the institution after the arrival of US forces, April 5, 1945. Irmgard Huber, the head nurse of the clinic, is probably the person standing fifth from the right. © IWM EA 62183
Policemen stand outside the shuttered Eldorado nightclub, long frequented by Berlin's gay and lesbian community. The Nazi government quickly closed the establishment down and pasted pro-Nazi election posters on the building. Berlin, Germany, March 5, 1933. Learn more about this photograph.
View of the wall surrounding the cemetery of the Hadamar euthanasia killing center. Jagged pieces of glass were placed on the wall to discourage observers. This photograph was taken by an American military photographer soon after the liberation of Hadamar. Germany, April 5, 1945.
German children read an anti-Jewish propaganda book for children titled Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). The girl on the left holds a companion volume, the translated title of which is "Trust No Fox." Germany, ca. 1938. (Source record ID: E39 Nr .2381/5)
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.
The Lachwa ghetto was established in Łachwa, Poland in April, 1942. Learn more about the ghetto and uprising.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
Hundreds of laws, decrees, guidelines, and regulations increasingly restricted the civil and human rights of Jews in Germany from 1933-39. Learn more.
Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Sobibor killing center in the General Government, the German-administered territory of occupied Poland.
Read an excerpt from Izak Lichtenstein’s 1947 testimony about the resistance movement in the Lachva (Lachwa) ghetto.
A second RCA Radiogram telegram from Rabbi Grodzenski, Chief Rabbi of Vilna, to the Central Relief Committee in New York. He requests aid for refugees who have gathered in Vilna. The telegram says that more than 1,600 yeshiva students and their families from over 10 cities throughout Poland have fled to Vilna, where they remain in terrible living conditions. November 5, 1939. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
(Bottom) View of fortifications built at Kalimovka to defend the advancing troops of the 4th Infantry Division of the Hungarian 2nd Army. In the lower right corner of the drawing, men prepare the grave of Jewish Labor Serviceman Nandor Klein, the first fatality of the company. The Hungarian caption reads: The death of our first hero, Nandor Klein, his grave, June 5, 1942." Klein was killed by a stray Soviet bullet on his way back to base. [Photograph #58013]
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