Leading German physicians and administrators were put on trial for their role during the Holocaust. The resulting Nuremberg Code was a landmark document on medical ethics. Learn more
German troops reached parts of Warsaw on September 8 and 9, 1939. During the German siege of Warsaw, the city sustained heavy damage from air attacks and artillery shelling. Warsaw surrendered on September 28. Here, German troops occupy Warsaw. This footage comes from "Tale of a City," a film made by a Polish underground film unit.
Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Despite Allied naval superiority, German naval forces played an important role in the campaign. This footage shows German naval units sailing towards Norway in rough seas. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic for the German navy, especially the submarine fleet, and safeguarded transports of Swedish iron ore for Germany's war industry.
These Torah scrolls, one from a synagogue in Vienna and the other from Marburg, were desecrated during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"), the violent anti-Jewish pogrom of November 9 and 10, 1938. The pogrom occurred throughout Germany, which by then included both Austria and the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. The scrolls pictured here were retrieved by German individuals and safeguarded until after the war.
March 11-13, 1938. On this date, German troops invaded and incorporated Austria into the German Reich. This event is known as the Anschluss.
December 1, 1945. On this date, survivors of the Deggendorf displaced persons camp gave a songbook to the UNRRA director Carl Atkin.
Learn about Jewish life in Germany and Europe before WWII, antisemitic laws, and Nazi violence and discrimination against the Jews of Germany.
Amalie and Norman Salsitz go to Israel to visit family members. Lod (Lydda), Israel, February 9, 1949. With the end of World War II and collapse of the Nazi regime, survivors of the Holocaust faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. With little in the way of financial resources and few, if any, surviving family members, most eventually emigrated from Europe to start their lives again. Between 1945 and 1952, more than 80,000 Holocaust survivors immigrated to the United States. Norman was one of…
Portrait of Aron's family on his mother's side, taken when Aron's cousin moved to Israel in 1933-1934. Aron is seated second from left, bottom row. His mother, Miriam, is in the center row, second from right. Aron's father is behind her and to her right. Aron himself was 8 or 9 years old when this picture was taken in either May or June. At the time, Aron recalled, "I was thinking about going to summer camp." Slonim, Poland, 1933-1934.
Insignia of the 95th Infantry Division. The 95th Infantry Division, the "Victory" division, gained its nickname from the divisional insignia approved in 1942: the arabic numeral "9" combined with the roman numeral "V" to represent "95." The "V" led to the nickname, since the letter "V" was universally recognized as an Allied symbol for resistance and victory over the Axis during World War II.
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