Portrait of Vida Kalderon, wife of Yakov Kalderon. She lived at Orisarska 2 in Bitola. This photograph was one of the individual and family portraits of members of the Jewish community of Bitola, Macedonia, used by Bulgarian occupation authorities to register the Jewish population prior to its deportation in March 1943.
Henryk Ross testifies during Adolf Eichmann's trial. In addition to official duties as a photographer in the Department of Statistics in the Lodz ghetto, Ross secretly photographed scenes in the ghetto. To Ross' right is chief prosecutor Gideon Hausner, who holds some of Ross' photographs submitted as evidence. Jerusalem, Israel, May 2, 1961.
Abraham Lewenson testifying at the trial of Adolf Eichmann. Jerusalem, Israel, June 2, 1961. The Eichmann trial created international interest, bringing Nazi atrocities to the forefront of world news. Testimonies of Holocaust survivors generated interest in Jewish resistance. The trial prompted a new openness in Israel as the country confronted this traumatic chapter.
German troops marching into the Sudetenland stop at a former Czech frontier post. Nazi officials and Sudeten Germans salute the troops. The sign between the swastikas reads: "One People, One Reich, One Führer." Grottau, Czechoslovakia, October 2 or 3, 1938.
Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Lolek Lubinski
Soldiers of the Polish Home Army Women's Auxiliary Services, taken captive by the Germans in October 1944 as a result of the Warsaw Polish uprising. After the uprising ended on October 2, the Germans took as prisoners of war more than 11,000 soldiers of the Polish Home Army.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1935.
The Röhm Purge (the “Night of the Long Knives") was the murder of the leadership of the SA (Storm Troopers), the Nazi paramilitary formation led by Ernst Röhm. Learn more.
World War II was the largest and most destructive conflict in history. Learn more in this timeline of key WWII dates and events.
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about WWII and genocide in Europe.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.