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Group portrait of members of the Freemasons Lodge of Chernovtsy, Bukovina, approximately 75 percent of whom were Jewish. The members were mainly intellectuals and leaders in business and local government. Among those pictured are Dr. Max Ennis (top row, third from the left); pharmacist, Dr. Abraham Guttman (top row, far right); an official in the revenue service, Dr. Max Gottfried (second row from the top, sixth from the left); and the judge, Dr. Jacob Rubel (third row from the top, far left). Chernovtsy,…
A suitcase used (ca. 1939) by a Jewish refugee fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe to Japan. The suitcase is covered with labels from various stops along the journey, including one from a hotel in Moscow (top left), one for the NYK Line (top middle), and six from hotels throughout Japan. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Three of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Oneg Shabbat archive were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. In this view the three boxes are stacked on top of one another. The box on top is displayed on its side without the lid.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1934.
June 30-July 2, 1934. On this date, Adolf Hitler ordered the Röhm Purge (also known as the "Night of the Long Knives").
Ruth Kohn (top row, second from left) and her classmates at a school in Prague. Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1928.
(Top and bottom) The image at the top shows Hungarian soldiers abandoning their trenches on the front lines as a Soviet tank overruns the barbed wire fortification separating the two armies. The drawing at the bottom captioned "Alarm," shows Hungarian soldiers running back and forth sounding the alarm of the Soviet counteroffensive. The drawings are dated Jan 11 and 13, 1943. [Photograph #58103]
A Maypole topped with a swastika is raised for a May Day parade in the Lustgarten in Berlin. The May holiday became an important celebration in the Nazi calendar. Germany, April 26, 1939.
The Röhm Purge (the “Night of the Long Knives") was the murder of the leadership of the SA (Storm Troopers), the Nazi paramilitary formation led by Ernst Röhm. Learn more.
Regina (top, left) with friends at a dance in Berlin. Germany, December 26, 1946.
General Michael (Rola) Zymierski (top row, center), commander of the Polish communist Armia Ludowa, poses with a partisan unit in the Parczew Forest. The partisan unit includes the Jewish physician, Michael Temchin (bottom right).
Judge Thomas Buergenthal (top row, fifth from left) and other members of the United Nations Human Rights Committee. 1995.
(Top) A map showing the progress of the advance of the Hungarian 2nd Army toward the Don River as of July 1942. [Photograph #58034]
American judges (top row, seated) during the Doctors Trial, case #1 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Presiding Judge Walter B. Beals is seated second from the left. Nuremberg, Germany, December 9, 1946–August 20, 1947.
A US Army soldier views the bodies of prisoners piled on top of one another in the doorway of a barracks in Wöbbelin. Germany, May 4–5, 1945.
German naval officer Martin Niemöller (top, foreground) commands a U-Boat during World War I. Flensburg, Germany , ca. 1914–17.
Display from "Der ewige Jude" (The Eternal Jew), a Nazi antisemitic exhibit which claimed that Jews heavily dominated the German performing arts. A phrase at the top of the display states "Shameless Entertainment." Berlin, Germany, November 11, 1938.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) and American soldiers at the Heidenheim DP camp, circa 1946–1947. Leon Kliot (Klott) is standing on the far right, third from the top.
Soviet photographer Yevgeny Khaldei stands on top of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin where he, along with a few Soviet soldiers, raised the Soviet flag. Berlin, Germany, May 1945.
Repairs and improvements are made to the courtroom where the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals would be held. The holes in the walls at the top (when completed) housed radio commentators and public address operators. September 11, 1945.
The extended Derman family. Top row, left to right: Aron, Lisa, Howard, Miriam, Daniel, Ari, Gordon, and Barbara (Howie's wife). Front row, left to right: Rachel, Yali, Evan, Gabe, Courtney, Ben, and Lindsay.
Dr. Horowitz's Hebrew class at Jefferson High School, Brooklyn, New York, 1947. (Regina is in top row, third from right, Professor Horowitz is in front row, third from right.)
Class photograph of students at the San Leone Magno Fratelli Maristi boarding school in Rome. Pictured in the top row at the far right is Zigmund Krauthamer, a Jewish child who was being hidden at the school. Rome, Italy, 1943–44.
Group portrait of members of the Katz family of Munkacs. Pictured in the top row from left to right are: Chicha, Isabella, Philip, Jolon (Cipi), and Regina. In the bottom row are Helen (left) and Tereza. Munkacs, 1942–1943.
Excerpt from Holocaust survivor Abraham Bomba's oral history testimony describing gas chambers at the Treblinka killing center.
Doriane's Jewish family fled to Amsterdam in 1940, a year that also saw the German occupation of the Netherlands. Her father perished after deportation to Auschwitz. After their mother was seized, Doriane and her brother hid with gentiles. The three were reunited at Bergen-Belsen, where they were deported via Westerbork. They were liberated during the camp's 1945 evacuation. Doriane's mother died of cancer soon after Doriane helped her recover from typhus.
The back of Samuel Soltz's citizenship papers illustrates the vast array of bureaucratic stamps and visas needed to emigrate from Europe in 1940–41. The stamp in the top left, dated August 21, 1940, represents a visa from the Japanese consul to Lithuania, Chiune Sugihara. Sugihara issued thousands of visas to enable Jews to escape.
(top) "Watercolor entitled 'Partisan hotel and public house', Krassnolipia, Ukraine, until July 31, 1942"; (middle) "Drawing entitled 'The interrogation of partisans captured by our unit'"; (bottom) "Watercolor entitled 'My lodgings in Krassnolipia'" [Photograph #58040]
(top) "Watercolor entitled 'Sports weeks in Uryv, September 1942' in which a Russian tank attacks a Hungarian unit in Uryv."; (bottom) "Watercolor entitled 'Quiet Don: a detailed map of the Don River area' featuring images of dead soldiers, horses and spilled blood on a map of the Don River." [Photograph #58060]
Vladka belonged to the Zukunft youth movement of the Bund (the Jewish Socialist party). She was active in the Warsaw ghetto underground as a member of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB). In December 1942, she was smuggled out to the Aryan, Polish side of Warsaw to try to obtain arms and to find hiding places for children and adults. She became an active courier for the Jewish underground and for Jews in camps, forests, and other ghettos.
The term genocide refers to violent crimes committed against groups with the intent to destroy the existence of the group. Learn about the origin of the term.
Family portrait of the Gartenberg family in Drohobycz, Poland. None of those pictured would survive the Holocaust. Photograph taken in 1930. Top row: Julius Gartenberg, Anna Fern, Bernard Klinger, Ona Fern and Izador Gartenberg. Lower row: Marcus Gartenberg, Hinda Gartenberg with her grandaughter Tony Schwartz on her lap, Sol Schwartz, and Ida Fern.
Poster for a meeting and speech about the Jewish Bolshevik threat against Germany sponsored by the local Nazi Party of East Hannover. Depicted is a silhouetted caricature of a Jewish man’s head in left profile, with a large, red Star of David beside him. The announcement at the top of the poster reads: "Victory over Bolshevism and plutocracy means being freed from the Jewish parasite!" Created ca. 1937–1940.
In this 1934 portrait of Norman Salsitz's family, Norman is seated in the front row (at left). In the top row, center, an image of one of Norman's brothers has been pasted into the photograph. This is seen by comparing the size of the brother's face with the others pictured. Pasting in images of family members who could not be present during family portraits was common practice and in some cases the resulting composite images are the only remaining visual records of family groups.
Portrait of a preschool class in Copenhagen. Gus Goldenburger (top row, second from left) was one of the few Jewish students in the class. His family moved to Denmark from Czechoslovakia, fearing the rising tide of Nazism. When the Nazis planned to deport Danish Jewry, the Goldenburgers managed to escape to Sweden, where they remained until the end of the war. After the war, the Goldenburgers returned to Copenhagen. Photograph taken in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1938–1939.
(Top) A map dated August 1942 showing the area of the late summer skirmishes between Hungarian and Soviet forces. It also shows the crucial bend in the Don River near the town of Uryv, where the fateful Soviet breakthrough occurred in January 1943. (Bottom) "Fairy tale nights along the Don River, August 1942." [Photograph #58058]
(Top) A drawing dated October 1942 depicting the events of August 28 when Beifeld was wounded near the front lines. His caption reads: "I get wounded and manage to get away from the dangerous bend in the [Don] river]." (Bottom left) Skull of a Soviet soldier with the caption 'Keep Smiling.' (Bottom right) Map entitled 'Dangerous Curve' depicting the bend in the Don River where the Soviet army was threatening to break through. [Photograph # 58061]
Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
November 15, 1940. On this date, German authorities ordered the Warsaw ghetto to be sealed.
August 21, 1940. On this date, Samuel Soltz's visa was stamped by Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese consul to Lithuania.
Léon Degrelle was an extreme right-wing Belgian politician and Nazi collaborator. After the war, he continued to spread pro-Nazi propaganda for decades. Learn more.
Like other Jews, the Lewents were confined to the Warsaw ghetto. In 1942, as Abraham hid in a crawl space, the Germans seized his mother and sisters in a raid. They perished. He was deployed for forced labor nearby, but escaped to return to his father in the ghetto. In 1943, the two were deported to Majdanek, where Abraham's father died. Abraham later was sent to Skarzysko, Buchenwald, Schlieben, Bisingen, and Dachau. US troops liberated Abraham as the Germans evacuated prisoners.
The Germans occupied David's town, previously annexed by Hungary, in 1944. David was deported to Auschwitz and, with his father, transported to Plaszow. David was sent to the Gross-Rosen camp and to Reichenbach. He was then among three of 150 in a cattle car who survived transportation to Dachau. He was liberated after a death march from Innsbruck toward the front line of combat between US and German troops.
Diaries reveal some of the most intimate, heart-wrenching accounts of the Holocaust. They record in real time the feelings of loss, fear, and, sometimes, hope of those facing extraordinary peril. Selma Wijnberg and Chaim Engel met and fell in love in the Sobibor killing center. After the young couple made a daring escape during the camp uprising and fled into hiding, Selma began a diary to record their experiences. The diary was written in 1943-1944 while Selma was in hiding in German-occupied…
Collage entitled: "Mementos from the Russian campaign," which includes a watercolor of Stalin with the caption: 'Russia a meeting place for foreigners 1942-43' (top); a commuter train ticket issued to military personnel who carried the special SAS [Hurry, Immediate, Urgent] draft notice (middle, right); a pseudo travel brochure cover entitled 'Spend your summer vacation in merry Russia' (bottom, left); and the original design for the cover of the labor company's journal entitled 'Hungarian Royal 109/13…
Eugenics poster entitled "The relationship between Jews and Freemasons." The text at the top reads: "World politics World revolution." The text at the bottom reads, "Freemasonry is an international organization beholden to Jewry with the political goal of establishing Jewish domination through world-wide revolution." The map, decorated with Masonic symbols (temple, square, and apron), shows where revolutions took place in Europe from the French Revolution in 1789 through the German Revolution in 1919. This…
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi.
Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from 1929 until 1945. Learn more about key dates in the life of Heinrich Himmler.
Fighting began in North Africa on September 13, 1940, when Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's Italian 10th Army launched an attack from its bases in Libya on outnumbered British forces in western Egypt. A successful British counterattack initiated on December 9, 1940, led by General Sir Archibald Wavell, resulted in Italian defeat at Tobruk (Tubruq) in eastern Libya on January 22, 1941. On February 12, 1941, German General Erwin Rommel arrived in Libya to take command of troops sent to reinforce Germany's Italian…
Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.
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