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  • Adam Czerniakow, chairman of the Jewish council in Warsaw


    [This video is silent] German forces entered Warsaw in September 1939. The next month, they ordered the establishment of a Jewish council (Judenrat) in the city. They chose Adam Czerniakow, a member of Warsaw's old Jewish Community Council, to lead it. Here, for German newsreels, a German propaganda company stages a meeting between Czerniakow and petitioners from the ghetto. The Germans expected Czerniakow to implement German orders, including demands for forced labor and confiscations of Jewish-owned…

    Adam Czerniakow, chairman of the Jewish council in Warsaw
  • The Warsaw ghetto Jewish council


    A meeting of the Warsaw ghetto Jewish council. Sitting behind table, 2nd to 4th from left: industrialist Abraham Gepner; chairman Adam Czerniakow; and lawyer Gustav Wielikowski. Warsaw, Poland, between 1939 and 1942.

    The Warsaw ghetto Jewish council
  • Jewish Councils (Judenraete)


    During World War II, the Ge...

    Jewish Councils (Judenraete)
  • Deportations to and from the Warsaw Ghetto


    At its height, the Warsaw ghetto held over 400,000 people living in horrendous and worsening conditions. Learn about deportations both to and from the ghetto.

    Deportations to and from the Warsaw Ghetto
  • Warsaw


    In October 1940, Nazi authorities established the Warsaw ghetto. Learn more about life in the ghetto, deportations, armed resistance, and liberation.

  • Majlech Kisielnicki

    ID Card

    The second of three children, Majlech was born to Jewish parents living 35 miles east of Warsaw in the small, predominantly Jewish town of Kaluszyn. Majlech's father owned a wholesale grocery store, a restaurant and a gas station, all of which were located on the heavily traveled main road. Majlech attended public elementary school and also received religious instruction. 1933-39: Majlech and his pals, Mindele, Sara and Adam loved to discuss politics. They'd heard the Polish propaganda claiming that…

    Majlech Kisielnicki
  • Herzogenbusch Main Camp (Vught)


    Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Among them was the Herzogenbusch main camp (also known as Vught).

    Herzogenbusch Main Camp (Vught)
  • The Nazi Persecution of Black People in Germany


    Read about the Nazi persecution of Black people, as well as Black people's experiences in Germany before the Nazi rise to power.

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