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Eva was born to Jewish parents and grew up in a city on the border between Romania and Hungary. On March 19, 1944, the Germans occupied Hungary and Eva was soon forced into a ghetto. She was later deported to Auschwitz, where she was killed at the a...
Sigrid Undset was a Norwegian author who won the Nobel Prize for Literature. In part because of her criticism of the Nazi regime, her work was burned in 1933.
Theodore Dreiser was an American author of naturalist fiction. Censorship and bans accompanied him all his life. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Zalie was the second of three children born to immigrant Jewish parents. Her Polish-born father was a former officer in the Austro-Hungarian army who had met and married her Hungarian-born mother during World War I. Shortly before Zalie was born, her parents settled in Paris. There, Zalie and her brother and sister grew up in a religious household. 1933-39: Zalie's mother said it was better in Paris than in the poor village in which she grew up. Her mother spoke broken French, but Zalie grew up speaking…
Janusz Korczak ran a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw. He and his staff stayed with the children even as German authorities deported them to their deaths at Treblinka in 1942.
Robert was raised in a German-speaking Jewish family in the Slovakian capital of Bratislava, where his father owned a dental supply business. Robert grew up bilingual: He learned Hungarian from his mother and he attended a German-language Jewish grammar school. 1933-39: When Hitler rose to power in Germany, anti-German sentiment grew in Slovakia and many Jews in Bratislava, like Robert's parents, who had originally identified with German culture, enrolled their children in Slovak schools. In March 1939…
Boy Scout handmade badges worn by German-Jewish refugee boys. British expatriates had transplanted the Boy Scouts to Shanghai before the refugees' arrival. Unlike most of the Polish Jewish refugees, German and Austrian Jews usually went to Shanghai as families, and enrollment in schools and youth organizations in the International Settlement grew rapidly. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Franz Oppenheimer was a sociologist and economist who expanded on tenets proposed by Karl Marx. Two of his works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Max Brod was a Jewish author most widely known as the biographer and editor of Franz Kafka. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
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