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  • "Aryanization"


    By the process of "Aryanization" in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, Jewish-owned businesses and property were transferred to non-Jews. Learn more.

  • Hidden child Gitta Rosenzweig


    During a roundup for deportation in eastern Poland in 1942, Gitta Rosenzweig—then three or four years old—was sent into hiding. She ended up in a Catholic orphanage. In 1946, Ida Rosenshtein, a family friend and a survivor, learned of the child's whereabouts and sought to claim her. After denying that it held a Jewish child, the orphanage relinquished custody after Ida recognized Gitta and a local Jewish committee paid a "redemption" fee. Gitta is pictured here on the day she left the orphanage.

    Hidden child Gitta Rosenzweig
  • Oranienburg


    The Oranienburg concentration camp was established as one of the first concentration camps in Nazi Germany on March 21, 1933. Learn more

  • Coining a Word and Championing a Cause: The Story of Raphael Lemkin


    Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin introduced the word genocide in 1944 and lobbied tirelessly for its addition as a crime in international law.

    Coining a Word and Championing a Cause: The Story of Raphael Lemkin
  • Father Jacques


    Father Jacques (Lucien Bunel) provided refuge to Jews and others at a school in Avon, France. Imprisoned in several Nazi camps for his activities, he died soon after liberation.

    Father Jacques
  • Raphael Lemkin Dies

    Timeline Event

    August 28, 1959. On this date, Raphael Lemkin died. He coined the term "genocide" and worked tirelessly for the term to become international law.

    Raphael Lemkin Dies
  • Gerda Haas describes prewar Jewish community life in Ansbach

    Oral History

    Gerda was raised in a religious family in the small town of Ansbach, Germany, where her father was the Jewish butcher. She attended German schools until 1936, and then moved to Berlin to attend a Jewish school. She returned to her hometown after Kristallnacht in November 1938. Her family was then ordered to move to Munich, and in July 1939 her father left for England and then the United States. He was unable to arrange for the rest of his family to join him. Gerda moved to Berlin in 1939 to study nursing.…

    Gerda Haas describes prewar Jewish community life in Ansbach
  • Belle Mayer Zeck describes research about IG Farben for the postwar trial

    Oral History

    Belle Mayer trained as a lawyer and worked for the General Counsel of the US Treasury, Foreign Funds Control Bureau. This bureau worked to enforce the Trading With the Enemy Act passed by Congress. In this capacity, Mayer became familiar with the German I. G. Farben chemical company, a large conglomerate that used slave labor during World War II. In 1945, Mayer was sent as a Department of Treasury representative to the postwar London Conference. She was present as representatives from the Allied nations…

    Belle Mayer Zeck describes research about IG Farben for the postwar trial
  • Frank Bleichman


    Despite great obstacles, Jews throughout occupied Europe attempted armed resistance against th...

  • Zimbabwe: Overview


    Introduction Zimbabwe is a country of approximately 14 million people located in the southern region of Africa. Zimbabwe has experienced multiple episodes of mass atrocities since independence from the United Kingdom in 1980. The government is also responsible for a variety of rights abuses outside of these major episodes of violence, especially against perceived supporters of opposition groups. The two most severe episodes of mass atrocities were the so-called Gukurahundi massacres from 1983 to 1987,…

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