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  • Antisemitism in History: Nazi Antisemitism


    Antisemitism (hatred of Jews) predominated in Nazi ideology. The Nazis built upon centuries of anti-Jewish sentiment. Learn about antisemitism in Nazi ideology.

    Tags: antisemitism
    Antisemitism in History: Nazi Antisemitism
  • The Weimar Republic


    The Weimar Republic was a liberal democratic republic founded in Germany in the aftermath of WWI. Learn about the era’s political and economic crises and social trends.

    The Weimar Republic
  • Antisemitism in History: The Era of Nationalism, 1800–1918


    Learn how the rise of nationalism in Europe (1800–1918) resulted in new forms of prejudice against Jews based on political, social, and economic considerations.

    Tags: antisemitism
    Antisemitism in History: The Era of Nationalism, 1800–1918
  • The Nazi Rise to Power


    The Nazi Party was one of a number of right-wing extremist political groups that emerged in Germany following World War I. Learn about the Nazi rise to power.

    The Nazi Rise to Power
  • Rudolf Hilferding


    Rudolf Hilferding was a well-known socialist. Also Jewish, he was persecuted by the Nazis and later died in prison. His books were burned in Germany in 1933.

    Rudolf Hilferding
  • Laura Litwak

    ID Card

    Laura was the second of five children born to religious Jewish parents in the industrial city of Lvov. She was often called affectionately by her nickname, Lorka. Coming from an educated family living in a multi-ethnic part of Poland, she grew up speaking Polish, Russian, German and Yiddish. As a young woman, she earned a humanities degree from St. Nicholas University in Lvov. 1933-39: In April 1935 Laura became Mrs. Daniel Schwarzwald. Her husband was a successful lumber exporter, and they lived in a…

    Laura Litwak
  • Dezso Rozsa

    ID Card

    Dezso was from a Jewish family in Hungary's capital, Budapest. His father had been a violinist. Dezso earned a university degree in English, and became a language teacher. He wrote a number of high school grammar textbooks. In 1914 he married Iren Hajdu, who was a mathematician. The couple had two children; a daughter, Eva, born in 1918, and a son, Pal, born seven years later. 1933-39: Dezso fears for the worst now that the antisemitic Prime Minister Teleki has taken power again. Nineteen years ago, in…

    Dezso Rozsa
  • Wladyslaw Tadeusz Surmacki

    ID Card

    Born to Catholic parents, Wladyslaw attended schools in Warsaw and earned a degree in survey engineering in Moscow in 1914. After fighting in World War I, he commanded a horse artillery division in Warsaw, worked for Poland's Military Geographic Institute, and taught topography courses. He started a family in 1925, and after he retired from the army in 1929 he founded a surveying company. 1933-39: When war with Germany became imminent in the summer of 1939, Wladyslaw volunteered to fight but was rejected…

    Wladyslaw Tadeusz Surmacki
  • Maria Justyna

    ID Card

    Maria was born to Roman Catholic parents in the industrial town of Piotrkow Trybunalski in central Poland. Her father and mother were school teachers. Maria attended grade school and secondary school in Piotrkow. She and her older sister, Danuta, became friends with two Jewish girls, Sabina and Helena Szwarc. Although their houses were more than a mile apart, the girls often played together. 1933-39: The Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, and occupied Piotrkow four days later. Most schooling for…

    Maria Justyna
  • Peter Black describes why it is important to continue pursuing justice, even decades after the events

    Oral History

    In the 1980s and 1990s, historian Peter Black worked for the US Department of Justice Office of Special Investigations, as part of a team tracking and prosecuting suspected war criminals. Black later served as the Senior Historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    Peter Black describes why it is important to continue pursuing justice, even decades after the events

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