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  • Antisemitism in History: Nazi Antisemitism


    Antisemitism (hatred of Jews) predominated in Nazi ideology. The Nazis built upon centuries of anti-Jewish sentiment. Learn about antisemitism in Nazi ideology.

    Tags: antisemitism
    Antisemitism in History: Nazi Antisemitism
  • The Weimar Republic


    The Weimar Republic was a liberal democratic republic founded in Germany in the aftermath of WWI. Learn about the era’s political and economic crises and social trends.

    The Weimar Republic
  • Antisemitism in History: The Era of Nationalism, 1800–1918


    Learn how the rise of nationalism in Europe (1800–1918) resulted in new forms of prejudice against Jews based on political, social, and economic considerations.

    Tags: antisemitism
    Antisemitism in History: The Era of Nationalism, 1800–1918
  • The Nazi Rise to Power


    The Nazi Party was one of a number of right-wing extremist political groups that emerged in Germany following World War I. Learn about the Nazi rise to power.

    The Nazi Rise to Power
  • Rudolf Hilferding


    Rudolf Hilferding was a well-known socialist. Also Jewish, he was persecuted by the Nazis and later died in prison. His books were burned in Germany in 1933.

    Rudolf Hilferding
  • Kurt Gerstein


    German SS officer Kurt Gerstein was assigned to the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen SS. He was called upon to assist in the implementation of the "Final Solution." After witnessing atrocities at the Belzec and Treblinka killing centers, he tried to inform foreign diplomats, Vatican officials, and members of the political resistance within Germany about Nazi German atrocities. While in Allied custody after the war, Gerstein wrote a report documenting the atrocities he had witnessed. 

  • Erika Eckstut


    Explore Erika Eckstut's biography and learn about the difficulties and dangers she faced in the Czernowitz ghetto.

  • Laura Litwak

    ID Card

    Laura was the second of five children born to religious Jewish parents in the industrial city of Lvov. She was often called affectionately by her nickname, Lorka. Coming from an educated family living in a multi-ethnic part of Poland, she grew up speaking Polish, Russian, German and Yiddish. As a young woman, she earned a humanities degree from St. Nicholas University in Lvov. 1933-39: In April 1935 Laura became Mrs. Daniel Schwarzwald. Her husband was a successful lumber exporter, and they lived in a…

    Laura Litwak
  • Dezso Rozsa

    ID Card

    Dezso was from a Jewish family in Hungary's capital, Budapest. His father had been a violinist. Dezso earned a university degree in English, and became a language teacher. He wrote a number of high school grammar textbooks. In 1914 he married Iren Hajdu, who was a mathematician. The couple had two children; a daughter, Eva, born in 1918, and a son, Pal, born seven years later. 1933-39: Dezso fears for the worst now that the antisemitic Prime Minister Teleki has taken power again. Nineteen years ago, in…

    Dezso Rozsa
  • Wladyslaw Tadeusz Surmacki

    ID Card

    Born to Catholic parents, Wladyslaw attended schools in Warsaw and earned a degree in survey engineering in Moscow in 1914. After fighting in World War I, he commanded a horse artillery division in Warsaw, worked for Poland's Military Geographic Institute, and taught topography courses. He started a family in 1925, and after he retired from the army in 1929 he founded a surveying company. 1933-39: When war with Germany became imminent in the summer of 1939, Wladyslaw volunteered to fight but was rejected…

    Wladyslaw Tadeusz Surmacki

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