October 24, 1929. On this date, the US stock market crashes.
Theories of eugenics shaped many persecutory policies in Nazi Germany. Learn about the radicalization and deadly consequences of these theories and policies
The term “pogrom” historically refers to violent attacks on Jews by local non-Jewish populations. Learn about pogroms before, during, and after the Holocaust.
December 1, 1945. On this date, survivors of the Deggendorf displaced persons camp gave a songbook to the UNRRA director Carl Atkin.
Series of articles on the Weimar Republic (1918–1933), a liberal democratic republic founded in Germany in the aftermath of World War I.
Georg Bernhard was a prominent financial columnist. The Nazis declared that German journalism must be "cleansed" of Jews. Bernhard’s work was burned in 1933.
Count Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi founded the "Pan-Europe" movement. His works were tossed into the flames during the Nazi book burnings of 1933.
Learn about the administration and commandants of the Auschwitz camp complex in German-occupied Poland.
Blitzkrieg, meaning "Lightning War" in German, was Germany’s strategy to avoid a long war in the first phase of World War II in Europe.
Between 1940 and 1944, Latvia was occupied by the Soviets and then by the Germans. These occupations had grave consequences for Jews in Latvia. Learn more.
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration’s mission was to provide economic aid to European nations and assist refugees after World War II.
After the German occupation of Lenin, there was a garrison established. Learn about the partisan attack and subsequent destruction.
Diagram of the Hodonín u Kunštátu (Hodonin bei Kunstadt) camp in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic). Before it was converted into a Zigeunerlager (“Gypsy camp”) in 1942, it served as a penal labor camp. Translation of key: Scale 1:500 Sleeping quarters Sleeping quarters Mess-hall Infirmary Offices, prison Living quarters for guard staff Economic/Agricultural Building Latrine Well Mess-hall for guard staff Pens for guard dogs
Vicki Baum was a bestselling author who embraced the ideals of liberation for women. Her works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Franz Oppenheimer was a sociologist and economist who expanded on tenets proposed by Karl Marx. Two of his works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Bad Gastein DP camp.
When WWII began, most Americans wanted the US to stay isolated from the war. From December 1941, the majority rallied in support of intervention to defeat the Axis powers.
May 29, 1938. On this date, Hungary adopted comprehensive anti-Jewish laws, excluding many Jews from professional work.
Between 1933 and 1939, Jews in Germany were subjected to arrest, economic boycott, the loss of civil rights and citizenship, incarceration in concentration camps, random violence, and the state-organized Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom. Jews reacted to Nazi persecution in a number of ways. Forcibly segregated from German society, German Jews turned to and expanded their own institutions and social organizations. However, in the face of increasing repression and physical violence, many Jews…
Despite terrible living conditions and the constant threat of deportation, there was a highly developed cultural life in the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. Learn more.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Romi Cohn.
The Germans established Jewish councils (Judenraete) in the ghettos. Forced to implement Nazi policy, council leaders and members faced impossible moral dilemmas.
As Germany conquered much of Europe, the concentration camp system expanded in size, function, and number of prisoners. Learn about concentration camps from 1939–1942.
Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Franz Werfel was an Austrian poet, modernist playwright, and novelist. Several of his works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
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