How did the United States respond to the Holocaust and World War II? Start learning today.
Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. Learn more about the racial and ideological motivations behind this “war of annihilation.”
Henry received a Doctor of Law (J.D.) degree from the University of Berlin in 1937. Sponsored by the rabbi of the Baltimore Hebrew congregation, Henry immigrated to the United States in the same year. In 1945, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) assigned him to prepare pre-trial briefs for the International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany. He interrogated a number of witnesses and defendants. After the war, he held various diplomatic posts.
Of the millions of children who suffered persecution at the hands of the Nazis and their Axis partners, a small number wrote diaries and journals that have survived.
In March 1942, the Hodonin camp was classified as a camp for Roma. It was a transfer station during deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Learn about the camp and its history.
Learn about the history and causes of antisemitism (hatred of Jews) and its role in Nazi ideology.
A farmer and his sons walk in the face of a dust storm. Cimarron County, Oklahoma. 1936
Among the many ironies of the International Military Tribunal was that the defendants were accorded that which they had denied their opponents: the protection of the law and a right to due process. Here, defendant Walther Funk, former German Minister of Economics, speaks with his defense attorney, Dr. Fritz Sauter, in a visitation room at Nuremberg.
A cheering crowd greets Adolf Hitler as he enters Vienna. Austria, March 1938. After a prolonged period of economic stagnation, political dictatorship, and intense Nazi propaganda inside Austria, German troops entered the country on March 12, 1938. They received the enthusiastic support of most of the population. Austria was incorporated into Germany the next day.
A United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) worker with a survivor of the Buchenwald concentration camp after liberation. Germany, June 13, 1945. The mission of UNRRA was to provide economic assistance to European nations after World War II and to repatriate and assist the refugees who came under Allied control.
Ernest Hemingway was a legendary American author. In 1933, his classic novel, "A Farewell to Arms," was burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
Brief overview of the charges against Walther Funk, economics minister and national bank president, during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
German industrialist Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach was one of 24 leading German officials charged at the International Military Tribunal.
The International Military Tribunal charged 24 defendants representing a cross-section of German diplomatic, economic, political, and military leadership.
Listing of the 24 leading Nazi officials indicted at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Learn about the defendants and the charges against them.
Anti-Jewish measures took effect in Bulgaria after the beginning of World War II. In March 1941, Bulgaria joined the Axis alliance and German troops passed through Sofia. In May 1943, Norbert and his family were expelled to Plevin in northern Bulgaria, where they stayed with relatives. After the advance of the Soviet army in 1944, Norbert and his family returned to Sofia.
Article 48 allowed the German president to declare a state of emergency in times of national danger and effectively to rule as a dictator for short periods. Learn about its far-reaching effects.
Learn about the provisions and impact of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, including the "War Guilt Clause" which held Germany responsible for starting World War I.
Under Adolf Hitler's leadership, the Nazi regime was responsible for the mass murder of 6 million Jews and millions of other victims. Learn about Hitler in the years 1930-1933.
A relief organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC or Joint) was established in 1914. Learn about its activities before, during, and after WWII.
Learn more about the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine (Subcarpathian Rus) before and during World War II.
Belle Mayer trained as a lawyer and worked for the General Counsel of the US Treasury, Foreign Funds Control Bureau. This bureau worked to enforce the Trading With the Enemy Act passed by Congress. In this capacity, Mayer became familiar with the German I. G. Farben chemical company, a large conglomerate that used slave labor during World War II. In 1945, Mayer was sent as a Department of Treasury representative to the postwar London Conference. She was present as representatives from the Allied nations…
Trials of top surviving German leaders for Nazi Germany’s crimes began in Nuremberg after World War II. Read about the Nuremberg trials.
The Nazis used propaganda to promote their ideas and beliefs about a "national community." Read more about the principles, goals, and strategies of Nazi propaganda.
The concept of Lebensraum, “living space,” was as a critical component in the Nazi worldview that drove both its military conquests and racial policy.
October 24, 1929. On this date, the US stock market crashes.
Theories of eugenics shaped many persecutory policies in Nazi Germany. Learn about the radicalization and deadly consequences of these theories and policies
The term “pogrom” historically refers to violent attacks on Jews by local non-Jewish populations. Learn about pogroms before, during, and after the Holocaust.
December 1, 1945. On this date, survivors of the Deggendorf displaced persons camp gave a songbook to the UNRRA director Carl Atkin.
Series of articles on the Weimar Republic (1918–1933), a liberal democratic republic founded in Germany in the aftermath of World War I.
Georg Bernhard was a prominent financial columnist. The Nazis declared that German journalism must be "cleansed" of Jews. Bernhard’s work was burned in 1933.
Count Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi founded the "Pan-Europe" movement. His works were tossed into the flames during the Nazi book burnings of 1933.
Learn about the administration and commandants of the Auschwitz camp complex in German-occupied Poland.
Blitzkrieg, meaning "Lightning War" in German, was Germany’s strategy to avoid a long war in the first phase of World War II in Europe.
Between 1940 and 1944, Latvia was occupied by the Soviets and then by the Germans. These occupations had grave consequences for Jews in Latvia. Learn more.
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration’s mission was to provide economic aid to European nations and assist refugees after World War II.
After the German occupation of Lenin, there was a garrison established. Learn about the partisan attack and subsequent destruction.
Diagram of the Hodonín u Kunštátu (Hodonin bei Kunstadt) camp in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic). Before it was converted into a Zigeunerlager (“Gypsy camp”) in 1942, it served as a penal labor camp. Translation of key: Scale 1:500 Sleeping quarters Sleeping quarters Mess-hall Infirmary Offices, prison Living quarters for guard staff Economic/Agricultural Building Latrine Well Mess-hall for guard staff Pens for guard dogs
Vicki Baum was a bestselling author who embraced the ideals of liberation for women. Her works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Franz Oppenheimer was a sociologist and economist who expanded on tenets proposed by Karl Marx. Two of his works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Bad Gastein DP camp.
When WWII began, most Americans wanted the US to stay isolated from the war. From December 1941, the majority rallied in support of intervention to defeat the Axis powers.
May 29, 1938. On this date, Hungary adopted comprehensive anti-Jewish laws, excluding many Jews from professional work.
Between 1933 and 1939, Jews in Germany were subjected to arrest, economic boycott, the loss of civil rights and citizenship, incarceration in concentration camps, random violence, and the state-organized Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom. Jews reacted to Nazi persecution in a number of ways. Forcibly segregated from German society, German Jews turned to and expanded their own institutions and social organizations. However, in the face of increasing repression and physical violence, many Jews…
Despite terrible living conditions and the constant threat of deportation, there was a highly developed cultural life in the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. Learn more.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Romi Cohn.
The Germans established Jewish councils (Judenraete) in the ghettos. Forced to implement Nazi policy, council leaders and members faced impossible moral dilemmas.
As Germany conquered much of Europe, the concentration camp system expanded in size, function, and number of prisoners. Learn about concentration camps from 1939–1942.
Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Franz Werfel was an Austrian poet, modernist playwright, and novelist. Several of his works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
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