Learn about the establishment of and conditions in Melk, a subcamp of the Mauthausen camp system in Austria.
The Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were developed as Nazi Party youth groups to indoctrinate children and youth in Nazi ideology and policy.
Studio portrait of Jankl Zuckerkandel, taken in The Hague, the Netherlands, in or around 1941. Jankl was killed in Sobibor at the age of three.
Thomas at age 13 months with his father, Mundek Buergenthal. Czechoslovakia, June 1935.
Anne Frank at 11 years of age, two years before going into hiding. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1940.
Anne Frank at five years of age. Bad Aachen, Germany, September 11, 1934.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Chaim Benzion Cale.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Bernard Musmand.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi.
The word antisemitism means prejudice against or hatred of Jews. Sometimes called "the longest hatred," it has persisted in many forms for over 2,000 years. Learn more.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.