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  • Hidden Children: Expressions


    Jewish children in hiding during the Holocaust created writing, art, diaries, and more. Read about the surviving documentation of their experiences.

    Hidden Children: Expressions
  • Reversal of Fortune: Robert Kempner


    Lawyer Robert Kempner was expelled from Germany in 1935. After WWII, he would return to serve as assistant US chief counsel during the IMT at Nuremberg.

    Reversal of Fortune: Robert Kempner
  • Wagner-Rogers Bill

    Timeline Event

    February 9, 1939. On this date, the Wagner-Rogers bill was introduced, ultimately unsuccessfully, to permit the entry of 20,000 European refugee children into the United States.

    Wagner-Rogers Bill
  • Euthanasia Program and Aktion T4


    The Nazi Euthanasia Program, codenamed Aktion "T4," was the systematic murder of institutionalized people with disabilities. Read about Nazi “euthanasia.”

    Euthanasia Program and Aktion T4
  • Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"


    Identifying armband worn by Pao Chia member. In 1942 the Japanese in Shanghai established self-policing units, Pao Chia, composed of all men, foreigners and Chinese, aged 20 to 45. In the designated area, male refugees served several hours weekly in rotating shifts as guards for buildings and ghetto entrances where they examined passes. Despite the Japanese use of the Pao Chia to help police the ghetto, it was relatively easy to leave the "designated area," which was not walled in. Individuals who did so,…

    Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"
  • Jazz musician Valaida Snow


    In the 1930s, famous Tennessee jazz musician Valaida Snow was known as “Little Louis” because her talent with a trumpet rivaled the legendary Louis Armstrong. She performed around the world, but it was a tour of Europe that would haunt her for the rest of her life.  While in German-occupied Denmark, Snow is said to have been arrested and imprisoned in Copenhagen. It is still unclear why she was arrested or what was done to her while she was held, but after her release in a May 1942 prisoner exchange,…

    Jazz musician Valaida Snow
  • Emil Ludwig


    Emil Ludwig was a liberal journalist and popular biographer whose works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

  • Einsatzgruppen massacres in eastern Europe (enlargement)


    Einsatzgruppen were German special duty units, composed primarily of SS and police personnel, assigned to kill Jews as part of the Nazi program to kill the Jews of Europe. During the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the mobile killing squads followed the German army as it advanced deep into Soviet territory, and carried out mass-murder operations. Wherever the Einsatzgruppen went they shot Jewish men, women, and children, without regard for age or gender. Einsatzgruppen killed more than a…

    Einsatzgruppen massacres in eastern Europe (enlargement)
  • Salonika


    Before World War II, Salonika (Thessaloniki) had the largest Jewish community in Greece.&...

  • Lion Feuchtwanger


    Lion Feuchtwanger was a bestselling German Jewish author who was persecuted under the Nazi regime. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933.

    Lion Feuchtwanger

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