Fritzie's father immigrated to the United States, but by the time he could bring his family over, war had begun and Fritzie's mother feared attacks on transatlantic shipping. Fritzie, her mother, and two brothers were eventually sent to Auschwitz. Her mother and brothers died. Fritzie survived by pretending to be older than her age and thus a stronger worker. On a death march from Auschwitz, Fritzie ran into a forest, where she was later liberated.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
Learn about the “Tehran Children,” a group of Polish-Jewish refugees. In 1942, they were resettled from the Soviet Union to Palestine via Iran.
Eleanor Roosevelt, longest serving First Lady in US history, used her social and political influence to intervene on behalf of refugees before and during WWII.
By September 1939, over half of German Jews had emigrated. WWII would accelerate the persecution, deportation, and later, mass murder, of the remainder of Germany's Jews.
Under the Vichy regime, the Les Milles camp held foreign Jews before emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.
A page of drawings illustrating the contribution of Jewish Labor Servicemen to the war effort. At the top: "The different platoons work hard at the battle front and in the no man's land [between the armies]. They actively participate in the fighting. They carry ammunition to the Hungarian soldiers." In the middle: "They defuse land mines. They bury the dead, including those that had been left unburied from the winter campaign. They carry soldiers wounded on the front lines to safety." At the bottom: "For…
June 9, 1942. On this date, German forces destroyed the village of Lidice as retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in Prague.
Theresia Seibel, born in 1921, was a member of the Sinti froup (Sinti and Roma are two main groups that make up the Romani, or Gypsy, ethnic minority). Theresia joined Germany’s Wuerzburg Stadttheater at age 16, performing as a singer and dancer. In 1941, she defied Gestapo orders to be sterilized and was three months pregnant with twins by the time she was called in for the procedure. She was allowed to continue the pregnancy on the condition that the babies would be given at birth to the clinic…
In this portrait, Helena Husserlova, wearing a Jewish badge, poses with her daughter Zdenka who is holding a teddy bear. The photograph was taken shortly before they were deported to Theresienstadt. Zdenka was born in Prague on February 6, 1939. On October 10, 1941, when Zdenka was just two and a half years old, her father was deported to the Lodz ghetto. He died there almost a year later, on September 23, 1942. Following his deportation, Helena and Zdenka returned to Helena's hometown to live with…
A group of Tunisian schoolgirls wearing aprons. Nadia Cohen is in the first row, third from the left. Tunis, Tunisia, ca. 1930-1935. Nadia Cohen was born on January 17, 1924, in Tunis. Nadia's parents came from Orthodox households, but her father left the yeshiva at the age of seven to study Italian, Arabic, and accounting in a French school. In 1938, Nadia was sent to a boarding school in France. She returned home for a visit in the summer of 1939 but could not return to school that fall due to the…
John Dolibois immigrated to the United States in 1931 at the age of 13. After graduating from college, Dolibois joined the 16th Armored Division of the US Army. Due to his German language skills, he became involved in military intelligence. He returned to Europe in this capacity toward the end of World War II. Dolibois interrogated German prisoners of war, including leading Nazis, in preparation for the postwar trials of war criminals. He was later appointed US ambassador to Luxembourg, his birthplace.
Photographer and renowned photojournalist Yevgeny Khaldei covered the events of World War II from Moscow to Berlin. Explore some of his images.
In Nazi Germany, the Ministry of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment spread ideology. It controlled the media and theater. Joseph Goebbels was its director. Learn more.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Leon Bakst.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Allen Small.
Einsatzgruppen, often called “mobile killing units,” are best known for their role in the murder of Jews in mass shooting operations during the Holocaust.
German physicians conducted inhumane experiments on prisoners in the camps during the Holocaust. Learn more about Nazi medical experiments during WW2.
When World War II ended in 1945, six million European Jews were dead, killed in the Holocaust. About 1.5 million of the victims were children.
The 2nd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Leipzig-Schönefeld and Spergau/Zöschen in 1945.
Economic, governmental, and political life in the Jewish community of Kalisz between World War and World War II.
Learn more about Frank Bleichman, a Polish partisan who resisted and fought against the Nazis during World War II.
The Hadamar Trial of October 1945 was the first mass atrocity trial held in the US occupation zone of Germany following World War II.
Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jakub Lapides.
Soviet military footage showing children who were liberated at Auschwitz by the Soviet army in January 1945.
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