The Jewish children of Lodz suffered harsh conditions after the German invasion of Poland. Read excerpts from diaries where they recorded their experiences.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jutta Szmirgeld.
Young people's diaries capture some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of David Sierakowiak.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Sara Rachela Plagier.
The Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages. Read more about the indoctrination of youth.
Forced Labor In German-occupied areas, the Nazis singled out Jewish laborers for cruel treatment. Jewish laborers were also subjected to humiliating treatment, as when SS men forced religious Jews to submit to having their beards cut. The ghettos served as bases for utilizing Jewish labor, as did forced-labor camps for Jews in occupied Poland. In the Lodz ghetto, for example, the Nazis opened 96 factories. The ability to work could save one's life, but most often only temporarily. Jews deemed unproductive…
Decrees that ordered Jews to wear special badges for purposes of identification existed before the Nazi era. Learn about this history.
Allen Small (left). Allen became a partisan fighter at age 14.
Anne Frank, age twelve, at her school desk. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1941.
Blood libels were false allegations that Jews used the blood of non-Jewish children in rituals. Nazi propagandists used this false charge in their antisemitic propaganda.
Learn about the establishment of and conditions in Melk, a subcamp of the Mauthausen camp system in Austria.
The Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were developed as Nazi Party youth groups to indoctrinate children and youth in Nazi ideology and policy.
Studio portrait of Jankl Zuckerkandel, taken in The Hague, the Netherlands, in or around 1941. Jankl was killed in Sobibor at the age of three.
Thomas at age 13 months with his father, Mundek Buergenthal. Czechoslovakia, June 1935.
Anne Frank at 11 years of age, two years before going into hiding. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1940.
Anne Frank at five years of age. Bad Aachen, Germany, September 11, 1934.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Chaim Benzion Cale.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Bernard Musmand.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi.
The word antisemitism means prejudice against or hatred of Jews. Sometimes called "the longest hatred," it has persisted in many forms for over 2,000 years. Learn more.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Chaim Kozienicki.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1939 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
In 2013, Yad Vashem recognized Italian cyclist Gino Bartali as Righteous Among the Nations for his rescue activities. Learn more
Elementary school-age members of Hashomer Hatzair in the Stuttgart displaced persons camp, circa 1946–1949. Lova Warszawczyk is standing in the center.
Close-up street portrait of Dawid Samoszul, probably taken in Piotrkow Trybunalski, Poland, between 1936 and 1938. Dawid was killed in the Treblinka killing center at the age of 9.
Amalie Petranka (later Salsitz) at 22 years of age. She gave this photo to Norman Salsitz shortly after they met. Photograph taken in Stanislawow, Poland, on October 10, 1939.
An antisemitic illustration from a Nazi film strip. The caption, translated from German, states: "As an alien race Jews had no civil rights in the middle ages. They had to reside in a restricted section of town, in a ghetto." Place and date uncertain.
A work corps of German women marches to the fields. Beginning in 1939, many thousands of German women between the ages of 17 and 25 worked on farms as part of a national labor service program. Germany, wartime.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Karolina Dresler.
Social Democratic politician Otto Wels was the only German parliamentary leader to openly oppose passage of the Enabling Act, the cornerstone of Adolf Hitler's dictatorship.
In 1946-48, the British government intercepted tens of thousands of Holocaust survivors seeking to reach Palestine and held them in detention camps on Cyprus.
Some Jewish children survived the Holocaust by hiding or living under disguised identities. Learn more about their experiences while in hiding.
September 1, 1941. On this date, Reinhard Heydrich declared that all Jews aged 6 and over in the Third Reich must wear a yellow Star of David.
Eva was born to Jewish parents and grew up in a city on the border between Romania and Hungary. On March 19, 1944, the Germans occupied Hungary and Eva was soon forced into a ghetto. She was later deported to Auschwitz, where she was killed at the a...
Born to a Jewish family in Preveza, Joseph Gani was endangered by the German occupation of Greece. In March 1944, the Nazis deported the Jews of Preveza to Auschwitz. Joseph was killed several months later, at the age of 18. These maps add geograp...
Born to a Jewish family in Preveza, Moise Gani was endangered by the German occupation of Greece. In March 1944, the Nazis deported the Jews of Preveza to Auschwitz. Albert was killed several months later, at the ag...
Born to a Jewish family in Preveza, Albert Gani was endangered by the German occupation of Greece. In March 1944, the Nazis deported the Jews of Preveza to Auschwitz. Albert was killed several months later, at the age...
Sigrid Undset was a Norwegian author who won the Nobel Prize for Literature. In part because of her criticism of the Nazi regime, her work was burned in 1933.
Studio portrait of Chava Leichter, murdered in the Treblinka killing center in 1942 at the age of 25. Her brother Chaim emigrated to Palestine in 1937 on the boat Polania. He served in the British army in Libya during the war. This photograph was taken in 1939.
Brief overview of the charges against Rudolf Hess, one of the leading German officials tried during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
Thomas Buergenthal's experiences as Holocaust survivor and international judge shape his unique perspective on judging war crimes today and justice after genocide.
Young people's diaries capture some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Irena Aronowicz.
Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Lolek Lubinski
At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.
Fischel was the youngest of five children. He came from a Jewish family of artisans; his father was a tailor, his uncles were furriers, and his sister was a dressmaker. Fischel started his education at a Jewish parochial school at age 3, where he studied Hebrew and Yiddish. He continued his education at Jewish private schools until age 10, when he entered Polish public schools. 1933-39: After graduating from the Polish public school system at age 14, Fischel started an apprenticeship in his father's…
Nazi officials implemented the Jewish badge as a key element in their plan to persecute and eventually destroy the Jewish population of Europe. Learn more
During WWII, the Children’s Aid Society (OSE) operated 14 children's homes throughout France to save Jewish children from internment and deportation to killing centers.
Frederick was the oldest of two sons born to Polish immigrants in Syracuse, New York. In 1922 Frederick's father, who was a musician, moved the family back to Poland where they settled in Poznan. There Frederick started public school and was accepted to the boys section of the prestigious Poznan Cathedral Choir. 1933-39: In 1933, at age 17, Frederick graduated from secondary school and enrolled in medical school at the university at Poznan. He sang with the choir for the last time the day he graduated…
Marcus, known to his family as Moniek, was one of three children born to a Jewish family in the Polish town of Ulanow. His father worked as a tailor. Ulanow's Jewish community had many of its own organizations and maintained a large library. From the age of 3, Moniek attended a religious school. He started public school when he was 7. 1933-39: In 1935 Moniek's father left for America to find a job so that his family could later join him. He sent money to them while they waited for their emigration papers.…
Arthur Szyk became one of America's most prominent cartoonists and caricaturists during World War II. His images reached millions during the 1940s. Learn more.
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