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SA men in front of Jewish-owned store urge a boycott with the signs reading "Germans! Defend Yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!" Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
On August 1, 1936, Hitler opened the 11th Summer Olympic Games. Inaugurating a new Olympic ritual, a lone runner arrived bearing a torch carried by relay from the site of the ancient Games in Olympia, Greece. This photograph shows an Olympic torch bearer running through Berlin, passing by the Brandenburg Gate, shortly before the opening ceremony. Berlin, Germany, July-August 1936.
Exhibition of Nazi publications—carefully purged of antisemitic titles—on display during the Berlin Olympics. The poster shows countries in which Hitler's Mein Kampf had been translated into the native language. Berlin, Germany, August 1936.
Former mayor of New York Fiorello H. La Guardia, on a tour of United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) camps in Europe, speaks to survivors. Duppel displaced persons camp. Germany, August 20, 1946.
Stateless Jewish refugees at the Mischdorf tent camp along the Slovak-Hungarian border, following the First Vienna Award which gave a sector of southern Slovakia to Hungary. Local Jews were accused of supporting the Hungarian claim, were driven across the border, then back again, then were forced to live for weeks in an open field. November 1938.
Ink and Blood by Arthur Szyk, 1944. Szyk portrayed himself at his desk, finishing off a still-struggling Adolf Hitler. Göring, Himmler, and Franco attempt to escape. In the wastebasket are the defeated figures of Mussolini, Laval, and Petain, whose regimes fell as a result of the Allied invasions. [Gift of Alexandra and Joseph Braciejowski]
Students and members of the SA unload books deemed "un-German" during the book burning in Berlin. The banner reads: "German students march against the un-German spirit." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
Some Jewish children survived the Holocaust because they were protected by people and institutions of other faiths. Children quickly learned to master the prayers and rituals of their "adopted" religion in order to keep their Jewish identity hidden from even their closest friends. This photograph shows two hidden Jewish children, Beatrix Westheimer and her cousin Henri Hurwitz, with Catholic priest Adelin Vaes, on the occasion of Beatrix's First Communion. Ottignies, Belgium, May 1943.
Nazi policy encouraged racially "acceptable" couples to have as many children as possible. Because of the number of children in this Nazi Party official's family, the mother earned the "Mother's Cross." Germany, date uncertain.
Martin Niemöller, a German theologian and pastor, on a visit to the United States after the war. A leader of the anti-Nazi Confessing Church, he spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps. United States, October 4, 1946.
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