Jewish refugees from Europe arrive at the emergency refugee shelter at Fort Ontario, in the United States. A father, holding his daughter, checks his tags. Oswego, New York, United States, August 4, 1944.
Under SA guard, a group of leading Socialists arrives at the Kislau camp, one of the early concentration camps. Local Social Democratic party leader Ludwig Marum is fourth from the left in the line of arrivals. Kislau, Germany, May 16, 1933.
German forces and Polish civilians on the outskirts of Warsaw. In the background of the photograph, the city burns as a result of the German military assault. Warsaw, Poland, September 1939.
Poles walk among the ruins of besieged Warsaw. This photograph documenting war destruction was taken by Julien Bryan (1899-1974), a documentary filmmaker who filmed and photographed the everyday life and culture of individuals and communities in various countries around the globe.
American radio journalists view corpses in the Buchenwald concentration camp. This photograph was taken after the liberation of the camp. Germany, April 18, 1945. Pictured from left to right are, Lowell Thomas (NBC); Howard Barnes (WOR); and George Hamilton Combs (WHN).
British troops land on the beaches of Normandy on D-Day, the beginning of the Allied invasion of France to establish a second front against German forces in Europe. Normandy, France, June 6, 1944.
US troops wade ashore at Normandy on D-Day, the beginning of the Allied invasion of France to establish a second front against German forces in Europe. Normandy, France, June 6, 1944.
Jewish refugees board the SS Mouzinho for the voyage to the United States. Among these refugees is a group of Jewish children recently rescued from internment camps in France. Lisbon, Portugal, ca. June 10, 1941.
English, French, Russian, and German were official languages of the Nuremberg trials. Translators provided simultaneous translations of the proceedings. Here, they route translations through a switchboard to participants in the trial. Nuremberg, Germany, November 1945.
People gather in the street to read a special edition of the Nurnberger newspaper reporting the sentences handed down by the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg, Germany, October 1, 1946.
Fifteen-year-old Maria Dolezalova is sworn in as a prosecution witness at the RuSHA Trial. Dolezalova was among the children kidnapped by German forces after they destroyed the town of Lidice, Czechoslovakia. Nuremberg, October 30, 1947.
The bodies of Jewish women exhumed from a mass grave near Volary. The victims died at the end of a death march from Helmbrechts, a subcamp of Flossenbürg. Germans were forced to exhume them in order to give the victims proper burial. Volary, Czechoslovakia, May 11, 1945.
Three German mayors view the corpse of a prisoner burned alive in a barn by the SS while on a death march from Rottleberode, a subcamp of Dora-Mittelbau. Gardelegen, Germany, April 18, 1945.
US troops and German civilians from Neunburg vorm Wald attend a funeral service for Polish, Hungarian, and Russian Jews found in the forest near their town. The victims were shot by the SS while on a death march from Flossenbürg. Neunburg, Germany, April 29, 1945. Following the discovery of death march victims, US Army officers forced local Germans to view the scene of the crime and ordered the townspeople to give the victims a proper burial.
United Nations personnel vaccinate an 11-year-old concentration camp survivor who was a victim of medical experiments at the Auschwitz camp. Photograph taken in the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp, Germany, May 1946.
Concentration camp survivor Jadwiga Dzido shows her scarred leg to the Nuremberg court, while an expert medical witness explains the nature of the procedures inflicted on her in the Ravensbrück concentration camp on November 22, 1942. The experiments, including injections of highly potent bacteria, were performed by defendants Herta Oberheuser and Fritz Ernst Fischer. December 20, 1946.
An SA member instructs others where to post anti-Jewish boycott signs on a commercial street in Germany. A German civilian wearing a Nazi armband holds a sheaf of anti-Jewish boycott signs, while SA members paste them on a Jewish-owned business. Most of the signs read, "Germans defend yourselves against Jewish atrocity propaganda/Buy only at German stores." Germany, ca. April 1, 1933.
Illustration from an antisemitic children's book. The sign reads "Jews are not wanted here." Books such as this one used antisemitic caricatures in an attempt to promote Nazi racial ideology. Germany, 1936.
Cover of an antisemitic German children's book titled Trust No Fox in the Green Meadow and No Jew on his Oath, published by Der Stürmer-Verlag (publishing company of Julius Streicher). Germany, 1936.
On July 14, 1933, the Nazi dictatorship enacted the Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases. Individuals who were subject to the law were those men and women who “suffered” from any of nine conditions listed in the law: hereditary feeblemindedness, schizophrenia, manic-depressive disorder, hereditary epilepsy, Huntington’s chorea (a rare and fatal degenerative disease), hereditary blindness, hereditary deafness, severe physical deformity, and chronic alcoholism. Gerda D., a…
Defendant Adolf Eichmann identifies the city of Danzig (Gdansk) on a map during his trial in Jerusalem. Israel, July 18, 1961.
British Jewish leader Sidney Silverman forwarded to American Jewish leader Stephen Wise this copy of a cable originating from Gerhart Riegner, World Jewish Congress representative in Geneva. Riegner had sent through their respective governments two cables warning Silverman and Wise of Nazi plans to exterminate European Jewry. The US State Department delayed delivery of the cable from Riegner to Wise, who initially received this version. United States, August 29, 1942.
Semmy Woortman-Glasoog with Lientje, a 9-month-old Jewish girl she hid. Woortman-Glasoog was active in a network which found foster homes, hiding places, and false papers for Jewish children. She was later named "Righteous Among the Nations." Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 1942 and 1944.
German soldiers arrest Jews during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Poland, May 1943. The Warsaw ghetto uprising began on April 19, 1943, after German troops and police entered the ghetto to deport its surviving inhabitants. By May 16, 1943, the Germans had crushed the uprising, deported surviving ghetto residents, and left the ghetto area in ruins.
Rail cars discovered by Soviet forces and containing possessions taken from deportees. This abandoned train was on the way to Germany loaded with personal effects (in this case, pillows) taken from Auschwitz victims. Auschwitz, Poland, after January 27, 1945.
Young German soldiers assist in the deportation of Jews from the Zychlin ghetto to the Chelmno killing center. The Nazis planned this deportation to fall on the Jewish holiday of Purim. Poland, March 3, 1942.
This image originates from a film produced by the Reich Propaganda Ministry. It shows patients in an unidentified asylum. Their existence is described as "life without hope." The Nazis sought, through propaganda, to develop public sympathy for the Euthanasia Program.
German Jews seeking to emigrate wait in the office of the Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden (Relief Organization of German Jews). On the wall is a map of South America and a sign about emigration to Palestine. Berlin, Germany, 1935.
Thracian Jews crowd the upper deck of the Karađorđe, a ship used for deportation, as it leaves the port of Lom. They were transported by ship along the Danube River to Vienna and then by rail to the Treblinka killing center in occupied Poland. Lom, Bulgaria, March 1943.
Thracian Jews crowded into an interior room of the Karađorđe, used as a deportation ship, just before it left the Danube River port of Lom. From Lom they were loaded onto four Bulgarian ships and taken to Vienna, where they were put on trains bound for the Treblinka killing center in occupied Poland. Lom, Bulgaria, March 1943.
Members of the Hlinka Guard and a squad of ethnic Germans march during a parade in Slovakia, a Nazi satellite state. Date uncertain.
Ustaša (Croatian fascist) soldiers oversee the deportation of a group of civilians from Kozara region to a concentration camp, in the pro-German fascist state of Croatia established following the partition of Yugoslavia. Croatia, between 1941 and 1944.
This photograph shows the aftermath of a shooting along the banks of the Danube River in Budapest. Members of the pro-German Arrow Cross party massacred thousands of Jews along the banks of the Danube. Budapest, Hungary, 1944.
SA men in front of Jewish-owned store urge a boycott with the signs reading "Germans! Defend Yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!" Berlin, Germany, April 1, 1933.
On August 1, 1936, Hitler opened the 11th Summer Olympic Games. Inaugurating a new Olympic ritual, a lone runner arrived bearing a torch carried by relay from the site of the ancient Games in Olympia, Greece. This photograph shows an Olympic torch bearer running through Berlin, passing by the Brandenburg Gate, shortly before the opening ceremony. Berlin, Germany, July-August 1936.
Exhibition of Nazi publications—carefully purged of antisemitic titles—on display during the Berlin Olympics. The poster shows countries in which Hitler's Mein Kampf had been translated into the native language. Berlin, Germany, August 1936.
Former mayor of New York Fiorello H. La Guardia, on a tour of United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) camps in Europe, speaks to survivors. Duppel displaced persons camp. Germany, August 20, 1946.
Stateless Jewish refugees at the Mischdorf tent camp along the Slovak-Hungarian border, following the First Vienna Award which gave a sector of southern Slovakia to Hungary. Local Jews were accused of supporting the Hungarian claim, were driven across the border, then back again, then were forced to live for weeks in an open field. November 1938.
British soldiers check Jewish refugees from Aliyah Bet ("illegal" immigration) ship Theodor Herzl before deporting them to detention camps in Cyprus. Haifa port, Palestine, April 24, 1947.
Ink and Blood by Arthur Szyk, 1944. Szyk portrayed himself at his desk, finishing off a still-struggling Adolf Hitler. Göring, Himmler, and Franco attempt to escape. In the wastebasket are the defeated figures of Mussolini, Laval, and Petain, whose regimes fell as a result of the Allied invasions. [Gift of Alexandra and Joseph Braciejowski]
Students and members of the SA unload books deemed "un-German" during the book burning in Berlin. The banner reads: "German students march against the un-German spirit." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
Some Jewish children survived the Holocaust because they were protected by people and institutions of other faiths. Children quickly learned to master the prayers and rituals of their "adopted" religion in order to keep their Jewish identity hidden from even their closest friends. This photograph shows two hidden Jewish children, Beatrix Westheimer and her cousin Henri Hurwitz, with Catholic priest Adelin Vaes, on the occasion of Beatrix's First Communion. Ottignies, Belgium, May 1943.
On the day of his appointment as German chancellor, Adolf Hitler greets a crowd of enthusiastic Germans from a window in the Chancellery building. Berlin, Germany, January 30, 1933.
Nazi policy encouraged racially "acceptable" couples to have as many children as possible. Because of the number of children in this Nazi Party official's family, the mother earned the "Mother's Cross." Germany, date uncertain.
Martin Niemöller, a German theologian and pastor, on a visit to the United States after the war. A leader of the anti-Nazi Confessing Church, he spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps. United States, October 4, 1946.
In the auditorium of the Propaganda Ministry and Public Enlightenment, Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels delivers a speech to his deputies for the press and arts. Berlin, Germany, November 1936.
Xaver Franz Stuetzinger, a member of the Communist Party of Germany, was tortured by the SS at the Dachau concentration camp. He died in May 1935 without divulging his connections. Germany, before May 1935.
Eugen Bolz, a member of the Catholic opposition to Hitler, during his trial before the People's Court. He was arrested following the attempt to kill Hitler in July 1944 and was executed at Berlin's Ploetzensee prison on January 23, 1945.
Rufus Jones (seated) and Clarence Pickett were chairman and executive secretary of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), respectively. They are pictured here at a Quaker meeting in Philadelphia. The AFSC assisted Jewish and Christian European refugees. Philadelphia, United States, January 22, 1943.
Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany, passengers on the St. Louis, disembark in the port of Antwerp. Cuba and the United States denied entry to these refugees. Belgian police guard the gangway. Antwerp, Belgium, June 17, 1939.
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