How did the United States respond to the Holocaust and World War II? Start learning today.
Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. Learn more about the racial and ideological motivations behind this “war of annihilation.”
Henry received a Doctor of Law (J.D.) degree from the University of Berlin in 1937. Sponsored by the rabbi of the Baltimore Hebrew congregation, Henry immigrated to the United States in the same year. In 1945, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) assigned him to prepare pre-trial briefs for the International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany. He interrogated a number of witnesses and defendants. After the war, he held various diplomatic posts.
Of the millions of children who suffered persecution at the hands of the Nazis and their Axis partners, a small number wrote diaries and journals that have survived.
In March 1942, the Hodonin camp was classified as a camp for Roma. It was a transfer station during deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Learn about the camp and its history.
Learn about the history and causes of antisemitism (hatred of Jews) and its role in Nazi ideology.
A farmer and his sons walk in the face of a dust storm. Cimarron County, Oklahoma. 1936
Among the many ironies of the International Military Tribunal was that the defendants were accorded that which they had denied their opponents: the protection of the law and a right to due process. Here, defendant Walther Funk, former German Minister of Economics, speaks with his defense attorney, Dr. Fritz Sauter, in a visitation room at Nuremberg.
A cheering crowd greets Adolf Hitler as he enters Vienna. Austria, March 1938. After a prolonged period of economic stagnation, political dictatorship, and intense Nazi propaganda inside Austria, German troops entered the country on March 12, 1938. They received the enthusiastic support of most of the population. Austria was incorporated into Germany the next day.
A United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) worker with a survivor of the Buchenwald concentration camp after liberation. Germany, June 13, 1945. The mission of UNRRA was to provide economic assistance to European nations after World War II and to repatriate and assist the refugees who came under Allied control.
Ernest Hemingway was a legendary American author. In 1933, his classic novel, "A Farewell to Arms," was burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
Brief overview of the charges against Walther Funk, economics minister and national bank president, during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
German industrialist Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach was one of 24 leading German officials charged at the International Military Tribunal.
The International Military Tribunal charged 24 defendants representing a cross-section of German diplomatic, economic, political, and military leadership.
Listing of the 24 leading Nazi officials indicted at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Learn about the defendants and the charges against them.
Anti-Jewish measures took effect in Bulgaria after the beginning of World War II. In March 1941, Bulgaria joined the Axis alliance and German troops passed through Sofia. In May 1943, Norbert and his family were expelled to Plevin in northern Bulgaria, where they stayed with relatives. After the advance of the Soviet army in 1944, Norbert and his family returned to Sofia.
Article 48 allowed the German president to declare a state of emergency in times of national danger and effectively to rule as a dictator for short periods. Learn about its far-reaching effects.
Learn about the provisions and impact of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, including the "War Guilt Clause" which held Germany responsible for starting World War I.
Under Adolf Hitler's leadership, the Nazi regime was responsible for the mass murder of 6 million Jews and millions of other victims. Learn about Hitler in the years 1930-1933.
A relief organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC or Joint) was established in 1914. Learn about its activities before, during, and after WWII.
Learn more about the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine (Subcarpathian Rus) before and during World War II.
Belle Mayer trained as a lawyer and worked for the General Counsel of the US Treasury, Foreign Funds Control Bureau. This bureau worked to enforce the Trading With the Enemy Act passed by Congress. In this capacity, Mayer became familiar with the German I. G. Farben chemical company, a large conglomerate that used slave labor during World War II. In 1945, Mayer was sent as a Department of Treasury representative to the postwar London Conference. She was present as representatives from the Allied nations…
Trials of top surviving German leaders for Nazi Germany’s crimes began in Nuremberg after World War II. Read about the Nuremberg trials.
The Nazis used propaganda to promote their ideas and beliefs about a "national community." Read more about the principles, goals, and strategies of Nazi propaganda.
The concept of Lebensraum, “living space,” was as a critical component in the Nazi worldview that drove both its military conquests and racial policy.
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