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  • Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp


    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Mariendorf DP camp.

    Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp
  • Judith Schwed

    ID Card

    Judith was the older of two children born to Jewish parents in the town of Kiskunfelegyhaza in southeastern Hungary. Her mother, Anna, and her mother's sister, Kornelia, were close in age and had a contest to see who would be the first to have a baby. Judith's Aunt Kornelia won the contest and cousin Maria was born in December 1931, just three weeks before Judith. 1933-39: Judith's father had a prosperous wholesale business that sold goose meat, down, feathers and quilts. In 1939, the same year that…

    Judith Schwed
  • Emanuel Litwak

    ID Card

    Emanuel, often known by his nickname Manek, was one of five children born to religious Jewish parents in the industrial city of Lvov. After graduating from secondary school, he entered Lvov's polytechnic institute to study civil engineering. 1933-39: At the institute the Jewish students had to stand on the left side of the lecture hall. Once, antisemitic schoolmates broke his jaw because he put up a fight when he was insulted. Manek sued his attackers, but the case was dismissed; the judge said Manek…

    Tags: Lvov Poland
    Emanuel Litwak
  • Jacob Unger

    ID Card

    Jacob was living in Essen, Germany, when he met and married Erna Schumer, who, like him, came from a religious Jewish background. The couple had two children, Max, born in 1923 and Dora, born in 1925. Jacob worked as a salesman, and in the evenings he tutored students in Hebrew. 1933-39: In 1933 when Hitler came to power, Jacob went to Amsterdam to explore the possibility of the family moving there. However, Erna did not want to leave her three sisters who were living in Essen, and she also believed that…

    Jacob Unger
  • Joseph Gani

    ID Card

    Joseph and his family lived in Preveza, a town with a Jewish population of 300 that was located on the Ionian seashore. Joseph's father had a small textile shop. The Ganis were of Romaniot descent, Jews whose ancestors had lived in Greece and the Balkans for more than a thousand years. 1933-39: Joseph attended Greek public school in Preveza. He also received a religious education; the local rabbi would come to the public school for several hours a week to give religious instruction to the Jewish students.…

    Joseph Gani
  • Law Limits Jews in Public Schools

    Timeline Event

    April 25, 1933. On this date, the German government issued the Law against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities, limiting the amount of Jewish students.

    Law Limits Jews in Public Schools
  • Book Burning

    Timeline Event

    May 10, 1933. On this date, books deemed "un-German" are publicly burned throughout Germany.

    Book Burning
  • Misuse of Holocaust Imagery Today: When Is It Antisemitism?


    Learn more about the modern misuse of images and symbols from the Holocaust and how this distortion can lead to antisemitism.

  • Frank Liebermann


    Explore Frank Liebermann’s biography and learn about his experiences of antisemitism in his home town in Germany before World War II.

    Frank Liebermann
  • Edward R. Murrow


    US radio and TV journalist Edward R. Murrow reported live from London during the Blitz; he also broadcast the first eyewitness account of the liberation of Buchenwald.

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