Nazi efforts to control forms of communication through censorship and propaganda included control of publications, art, theater, music, movies, and radio.
A page from the Mishneh Torah, one of many texts reprinted in Shanghai during the war. Yeshiva students spent part of each day listening to teachers lecture on the Talmud, the collection of ancient Rabbinic writings and commentaries composed of the Mishnah and the Gemara that form the basis of religious authority in Judaism. During the rest of the day, students paired up to review selections from the lecture. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Erich Maria Remarque wrote the classic novel “All Quiet on the Western Front,” which became a Hollywood film. His works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933.
Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. The Nazis abhorred his new science and Jewish heritage. His works were burned in Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Georg Bernhard was a prominent financial columnist. The Nazis declared that German journalism must be "cleansed" of Jews. Bernhard’s work was burned in 1933.
Ernst Gläser wrote the antiwar novel "Jahrgang 1902." His works, considered leftist and anti-fascist, were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Heinrich Mann was an author and early target of the Nazis for his political views. His writings were among those burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Ernst Toller was one of the best-known German dramatists of the 1920s. He wrote against Nazism, and was among those whose works were burned under the Nazi regime.
Vicki Baum was a bestselling author who embraced the ideals of liberation for women. Her works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Friedrich Wilhelm Förster was an author, educator, and philosopher. In 1933, his works were denounced as subversive and burned in Nazi Germany. Learn more.
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