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  • Judith Margareth Konijn

    ID Card

    Judith was the younger of two children born to religious, middle-class Jewish parents. Judith's mother, Clara, was Sephardic, a descendant of Jews who had been expelled from Spain in 1492. Her father, Lodewijk, was a traveling representative for a firm based in Amsterdam. The family lived in an apartment in a new section of Amsterdam on the southern outskirts. 1933-39: Judith attended grade school with her cousin Hetty who was the same age. Judith loved to study. Her mother taught piano to students who…

    Tags: Amsterdam
    Judith Margareth Konijn
  • Joseph Gani

    ID Card

    Joseph and his family lived in Preveza, a town with a Jewish population of 300 that was located on the Ionian seashore. Joseph's father had a small textile shop. The Ganis were of Romaniot descent, Jews whose ancestors had lived in Greece and the Balkans for more than a thousand years. 1933-39: Joseph attended Greek public school in Preveza. He also received a religious education; the local rabbi would come to the public school for several hours a week to give religious instruction to the Jewish students.…

    Joseph Gani
  • Mishneh Torah


    A page from the Mishneh Torah, one of many texts reprinted in Shanghai during the war. Yeshiva students spent part of each day listening to teachers lecture on the Talmud, the collection of ancient Rabbinic writings and commentaries composed of the Mishnah and the Gemara that form the basis of religious authority in Judaism. During the rest of the day, students paired up to review selections from the lecture. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Mishneh Torah
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Förster


    Friedrich Wilhelm Förster was an author, educator, and philosopher. In 1933, his works were denounced as subversive and burned in Nazi Germany. Learn more.

  • Werner Hegemann


    Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.

  • Erich Kästner


    Erich Kästner was a popular political satirist and left-liberal author whose works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

  • Karl Kautsky


    Karl Kautsky was a leading Marxist and Socialist theoretician in the Austrian Social Democratic movement. His books were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.

    Karl Kautsky
  • Arnold Zweig


    Arnold Zweig was a German novelist and playwright. The Nazis denounced him as a pacifist, and his works were burned in 1933. Learn more.

  • Kurt Tucholsky


    Kurt Tucholsky was a German satirist who criticized the Nazis during their rise to power. In 1933, his works were burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.

  • Carl von Ossietzky


    Carl von Ossietzky was a German journalist, pacifist, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate whose articles were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.

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