Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
Erich Kästner was a popular political satirist and left-liberal author whose works were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Karl Kautsky was a leading Marxist and Socialist theoretician in the Austrian Social Democratic movement. His books were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Arnold Zweig was a German novelist and playwright. The Nazis denounced him as a pacifist, and his works were burned in 1933. Learn more.
Kurt Tucholsky was a German satirist who criticized the Nazis during their rise to power. In 1933, his works were burned under the Nazi regime. Learn more.
Carl von Ossietzky was a German journalist, pacifist, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate whose articles were burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
Klaus Mann was a German author whose novel “Mephisto” exposed the evil of the Nazi dictatorship. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in May 1933. Learn more.
Judith was the younger of two children born to religious, middle-class Jewish parents. Judith's mother, Clara, was Sephardic, a descendant of Jews who had been expelled from Spain in 1492. Her father, Lodewijk, was a traveling representative for a firm based in Amsterdam. The family lived in an apartment in a new section of Amsterdam on the southern outskirts. 1933-39: Judith attended grade school with her cousin Hetty who was the same age. Judith loved to study. Her mother taught piano to students who…
Group portrait of students and teachers at the Hebrew gymnasium in Munkacs. 1936-1937.
The Nazi book burnings of 1933 sparked responses from anti-Fascist organizations, Jewish groups, and writers in the United States. Learn more.
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