An ORT (Organization for Rehabilitation through Training) auto mechanics class at Landsberg displaced persons camp. This training prepared the students to emigrate to Palestine. Germany, postwar.
In Hamburg, members of the SA and students from the University of Hamburg burn books they regard as "un-German." Hamburg, Germany, May 15, 1933.
Public burning of "un-German" books in the Opernplatz (Opera Square) in Berlin. Students, some in SA uniform, march in a torchlight procession. Berlin, May 10, 1933.
At Berlin's Opernplatz, crowds of German students and members of the SA gather for the burning of books deemed "un-German." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.
Portrait of American journalist John Reed, circa 1914. Reed's book Ten Days that Shook the World was among the texts Nazi students burned in 1933.
Amid intensifying anti-Jewish measures and the 1938 Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom, Johanna's family decided to leave Germany. They obtained visas for Albania, crossed into Italy, and sailed in 1939. They remained in Albania under the Italian occupation and, after Italy surrendered in 1943, under German occupation. The family was liberated after a battle between the Germans and Albanian partisans in December 1944.
Hundreds of laws, decrees, guidelines, and regulations increasingly restricted the civil and human rights of Jews in Germany from 1933-39. Learn more.
Goblets used in Shanghai by the Caspary family for blessings (Kiddush) over wine on the Sabbath or Jewish holidays. The Orthodox Casparys ran a kosher restaurant frequented by yeshiva students from Poland. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Alexander Schmorell, a member of the White Rose student opposition, upon his graduation from high school. Schmorell was arrested, condemned to death by the People's Court, and executed on July 13, 1943.
Class photograph of students at the San Leone Magno Fratelli Maristi boarding school in Rome. Pictured in the top row at the far right is Zigmund Krauthamer, a Jewish child who was being hidden at the school. Rome, Italy, 1943–44.
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