Jews in early modern Europe were subject to various laws, restrictions, and protections. Learn how these policies reinforced antisemitic stereotypes.
Many German businesses were involved in the policies of the Third Reich. Learn about Topf and Sons, which sold ovens to the SS for major concentration camps in Germany.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Leon Senders.
Each of Germany’s six European Axis allies participated in the “Final Solution” by murdering Jews or by transferring them to German custody. Learn more.
View of the Neuengamme concentration camp. Prisoners stand behind the fence that separates the "protective custody" camp from the manufacturing sectors of the camp. In the distance are the crematorium and the Walther armaments works. Photograph taken between 1940 and 1945, Neuengamme, Germany.
Establishment of the Camp The Germans established the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp near the town of Natzweiler, about 31 miles southwest of Strasbourg, the capital of the province of Alsace (in eastern France). It was one of the smaller concentration camps built by the Germans. Until construction was completed in May 1941, prisoners slept in the nearby former Hotel Struthof, hence the name Natzweiler-Struthof. The camp held about 1,500 prisoners. Prisoners worked in nearby granite quarries, in…
Leading German physicians and administrators were put on trial for their role during the Holocaust. The resulting Nuremberg Code was a landmark document on medical ethics. Learn more
The Volkswagen automobile company went into military production during WWII, operating concentration and forced-labor camps. Learn more about its role.
Charged with managing the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and killing centers, Adolf Eichmann was a key figure in the "Final Solution."
Architect James Ingo Freed designed the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.