Elementary school-age members of Hashomer Hatzair in the Stuttgart displaced persons camp, circa 1946–1949. Lova Warszawczyk is standing in the center.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1939 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
In 2013, Yad Vashem recognized Italian cyclist Gino Bartali as Righteous Among the Nations for his rescue activities. Learn more
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Chaim Kozienicki.
Close-up street portrait of Dawid Samoszul, probably taken in Piotrkow Trybunalski, Poland, between 1936 and 1938. Dawid was killed in the Treblinka killing center at the age of 9.
Amalie Petranka (later Salsitz) at 22 years of age. She gave this photo to Norman Salsitz shortly after they met. Photograph taken in Stanislawow, Poland, on October 10, 1939.
An antisemitic illustration from a Nazi film strip. The caption, translated from German, states: "As an alien race Jews had no civil rights in the middle ages. They had to reside in a restricted section of town, in a ghetto." Place and date uncertain.
A work corps of German women marches to the fields. Beginning in 1939, many thousands of German women between the ages of 17 and 25 worked on farms as part of a national labor service program. Germany, wartime.
September 1, 1941. On this date, Reinhard Heydrich declared that all Jews aged 6 and over in the Third Reich must wear a yellow Star of David.
Social Democratic politician Otto Wels was the only German parliamentary leader to openly oppose passage of the Enabling Act, the cornerstone of Adolf Hitler's dictatorship.
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