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  • Judging War Crimes Today


    Thomas Buergenthal's experiences as Holocaust survivor and international judge shape his unique perspective on judging war crimes today and justice after genocide.

    Judging War Crimes Today
  • Irena Aronowicz


    Young people's diaries capture some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Irena Aronowicz.

  • Jehuda Lejb Lubinski (Lolek Lubinski)


    Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Lolek Lubinski

  • Berga-Elster ("Schwalbe V")


    At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.

  • Fischel (Philip) Goldstein

    ID Card

    Fischel was the youngest of five children. He came from a Jewish family of artisans; his father was a tailor, his uncles were furriers, and his sister was a dressmaker. Fischel started his education at a Jewish parochial school at age 3, where he studied Hebrew and Yiddish. He continued his education at Jewish private schools until age 10, when he entered Polish public schools. 1933-39: After graduating from the Polish public school system at age 14, Fischel started an apprenticeship in his father's…

    Fischel (Philip) Goldstein
  • Jewish Badge: During the Nazi Era


    Nazi officials implemented the Jewish badge as a key element in their plan to persecute and eventually destroy the Jewish population of Europe. Learn more

    Jewish Badge: During the Nazi Era
  • Children's Aid Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants)


    During WWII, the Children’s Aid Society (OSE) operated 14 children's homes throughout France to save Jewish children from internment and deportation to killing centers.

    Children's Aid Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants)
  • Frederick Fleszar

    ID Card

    Frederick was the oldest of two sons born to Polish immigrants in Syracuse, New York. In 1922 Frederick's father, who was a musician, moved the family back to Poland where they settled in Poznan. There Frederick started public school and was accepted to the boys section of the prestigious Poznan Cathedral Choir. 1933-39: In 1933, at age 17, Frederick graduated from secondary school and enrolled in medical school at the university at Poznan. He sang with the choir for the last time the day he graduated…

    Tags: Poland
    Frederick Fleszar
  • Marcus Fass

    ID Card

    Marcus, known to his family as Moniek, was one of three children born to a Jewish family in the Polish town of Ulanow. His father worked as a tailor. Ulanow's Jewish community had many of its own organizations and maintained a large library. From the age of 3, Moniek attended a religious school. He started public school when he was 7. 1933-39: In 1935 Moniek's father left for America to find a job so that his family could later join him. He sent money to them while they waited for their emigration papers.…

    Marcus Fass
  • The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk


    Arthur Szyk became one of America's most prominent cartoonists and caricaturists during World War II. His images reached millions during the 1940s. Learn more.

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