Joseph was the youngest of three children born to immigrant Jewish parents. His Polish-born father was a former officer in the Austro-Hungarian army who had met and married Joseph's Hungarian-born mother during World War I. Joseph was raised in a religious household and grew up speaking French. 1933-39: Joseph's mother says it's better here in Paris than in the poor village where she grew up. Unlike his mother, who speaks broken French, Joseph and his older sisters have grown up speaking French fluently.…
Yiddish writer Chaim Yelin was a leader of the Kovno ghetto underground resistance movement again the Germans.
Learn more about the establishment of the state of Israel after World War II and its significance to Holocaust survivors.
Monique's Jewish parents met in Paris. Her father had emigrated there from Russia to study engineering, and her mother had come from Poland as a young child. Monique's father did not have enough money to finish university, so he went to work as an upholsterer. He also shared a small business which sold his hand-tooled leather purses. 1933-39: Monique's mother was 20 when she gave birth to Monique in 1937. Two years later, Parisians were threatened by the possibility of bombing by the Germans, and French…
Group portrait of a Jewish French underground group named "Compagnie Reiman." This photograph was taken after the liberation of France. Paris, France, 1945.
In 1939, the Nazis established the Mannschafts-Stammlager (Stalag) IX B camp in Germany. Learn more about the camp’s history, prisoners, and liberation.
Between 1933-1945, Latin American governments officially permitted approx. 84,000 Jewish refugees. Learn more about Latin America refugee policy.
The Nazi Kripo, or Criminal Police, was the detective force of Nazi Germany. During the Nazi regime and WWII, it became a key enforcer of policies based in Nazi ideology.
Many German businesses were involved in the policies of the Third Reich. Learn about Topf and Sons, which sold ovens to the SS for major concentration camps in Germany.
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